Dr Ronald Smernik

Ronald Smernik
Research Fellow
School of Agriculture, Food and Wine
Faculty of Sciences

Ron Smernik is a senior lecturer in the Soils Group in the School of Agriculture, Food and Wine. His teaching and research interests are in field of soil chemistry. A particular focus is soil organic matter, the mostly dead and decaying biomass of plants and microbes that generally comprises 1-5% of soil mass, but has a disproportionate impact on many key soil properties, including fertility, carbon storage and the toxicity of pollutants. In terms of soil fertility, soil organic matter acts as a "slow release fertilizer", since the slow decomposition of soil organic matter releases key plant nutrients, especially N, P and S. The presence of soil organic matter also enhances soil physical properties for plant growth, including water holding capacity and soil structure. The carbon present in soil organic matter represents a large pool of carbon; management of soil to enhance soil organic matter levels has been identified as a key strategy for carbon sequestration to mitigate against climate change caused by rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Soil organic matter acts as the main sorbent of organic contaminants in soil and thus controls the toxicity, transport and rate of breakdown of this important class of environmental pollutants.

Ron has contributed to all of these aspects of soil organic matter research, mainly through the development and application of methods for the chemical characterization of soil organic matter, especially nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Recent highlights include the development of 31P NMR methods to unravel the complexities of the P speciation of soil and novel methods for differentiating among the broad range of pyrolytic materials found in and added to soil (i.e. "black carbon" and "biochar"). Ron has published >100 peer-reviewed papers, has received funding for research both pure (e.g. ARC) and applied (e.g. Meat & Livestock Australia) in nature, and has collaborates with researchers all around the world.

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Dr Ronald Smernik

Ron Smernik is a senior lecturer in the Soils Group in the School of Agriculture, Food and Wine. His teaching and research interests are in field of soil chemistry. A particular focus is soil organic matter, the mostly dead and decaying biomass of plants and microbes that generally comprises 1-5% of soil mass, but has a disproportionate impact on many key soil properties, including fertility, carbon storage and the toxicity of pollutants. In terms of soil fertility, soil organic matter acts as a "slow release fertilizer", since the slow decomposition of soil organic matter releases key plant nutrients, especially N, P and S. The presence of soil organic matter also enhances soil physical properties for plant growth, including water holding capacity and soil structure. The carbon present in soil organic matter represents a large pool of carbon; management of soil to enhance soil organic matter levels has been identified as a key strategy for carbon sequestration to mitigate against climate change caused by rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Soil organic matter acts as the main sorbent of organic contaminants in soil and thus controls the toxicity, transport and rate of breakdown of this important class of environmental pollutants.

Ron has contributed to all of these aspects of soil organic matter research, mainly through the development and application of methods for the chemical characterization of soil organic matter, especially nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Recent highlights include the development of 31P NMR methods to unravel the complexities of the P speciation of soil and novel methods for differentiating among the broad range of pyrolytic materials found in and added to soil (i.e. "black carbon" and "biochar"). Ron has published >100 peer-reviewed papers, has received funding for research both pure (e.g. ARC) and applied (e.g. Meat & Livestock Australia) in nature, and has collaborates with researchers all around the world.

Education

Date Institution name Country Title
1992 - 1996 The University of Sydney Australia PhD
1988 - 1991 The University of Sydney Australia B. Sc. (Hons)

Journals

Year Citation
2017 McLaren, T., Smernik, R., Simpson, R., McLaughlin, M., McBeath, T., Guppy, C. & Richardson, A. (2017). The chemical nature of organic phosphorus that accumulates in fertilized soils of a temperate pasture as determined by solution 31P NMR spectroscopy. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 180, 1, 27-38.
10.1002/jpln.201600076
2017 Mackay, J., Macdonald, L., Smernik, R. & Cavagnaro, T. (2017). Organic amendments as phosphorus fertilisers: chemical analyses, biological processes and plant P uptake. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 107, 50-59.
10.1016/j.soilbio.2016.12.008
2017 Doolette, A., Smernik, R. & McLaren, T. (2017). The composition of organic phosphorus in soils of the Snowy Mountains region of south-eastern Australia. Soil Research, 55, 1, 10-18.
10.1071/SR16058
2017 Bargrizan, S., Smernik, R. & Mosley, L. (2017). Development of a spectrophotometric method for determining pH of soil extracts and comparison with glass electrode measurements. Soil Science Society of America Journal, -.
10.2136/sssaj2017.04.0119
2017 Bird, M., McBeath, A., Ascough, P., Levchenko, V., Wurster, C., Munksgaard, N. ... Williams, A. (2017). Loss and gain of carbon during char degradation. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 106, 80-89.
10.1016/j.soilbio.2016.12.012
2017 Awad, J., van Leeuwen, J., Chow, C., Smernik, R., Anderson, S. & Cox, J. (2017). Seasonal variation in the nature of DOM in a river and drinking water reservoir of a closed catchment. Environmental Pollution, 220, Pt B, 788-796.
10.1016/j.envpol.2016.10.054
2017 McLaren, T., McBeath, T., Simpson, R., Richardson, A., Stefanski, A., Guppy, C. ... McLaughlin, M. (2017). Direct recovery of 33P-labelled fertiliser phosphorus in subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum) pastures under field conditions – The role of agronomic management. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 246, 144-156.
10.1016/j.agee.2017.05.029
2016 Doolette, A. & Smernik, R. (2016). Phosphorus speciation of dormant grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) canes in the Barossa Valley, South Australia. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research, 22, 3, 462-468.
10.1111/ajgw.12234
2016 Adeloju, S., Webb, B. & Smernik, R. (2016). Phosphorus distribution in soils from Australian dairy and beef rearing pastoral systems. Applied Sciences (Switzerland), 6, 2, 1-19.
10.3390/app6020031
2016 McLaren, T., McLaughlin, M., McBeath, T., Simpson, R., Smernik, R., Guppy, C. & Richardson, A. (2016). The fate of fertiliser P in soil under pasture and uptake by subterraneum clover – a field study using ³³P-labelled single superphosphate. Plant and Soil, 401, 1-2, 23-38.
10.1007/s11104-015-2610-6
2016 Stevenson, B., Sarmah, A., Smernik, R., Hunter, D. & Fraser, S. (2016). Soil carbon characterization and nutrient ratios across land uses on two contrasting soils: Their relationships to microbial biomass and function. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 97, 50-62.
10.1016/j.soilbio.2016.02.009
2016 Cargill, M. & Smernik, R. (2016). Embedding publication skills in science research training: a writing group programme based on applied linguistics frameworks and facilitated by a scientist. Higher Education Research and Development, 35, 2, 229-241.
10.1080/07294360.2015.1087382
2016 Moata, M., Doolette, A., Smernik, R., McNeill, A. & Macdonald, L. (2016). Organic phosphorus speciation in Australian Red Chromosols: Stoichiometric control. Soil Research, 54, 1, 11-19.
10.1071/SR15085
2016 Awad, J., van Leeuwen, J., Chow, C., Drikas, M., Smernik, R., Chittleborough, D. & Bestland, E. (2016). Characterization of dissolved organic matter for prediction of trihalomethane formation potential in surface and sub-surface waters. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 308, 430-439.
10.1016/j.jhazmat.2016.01.030
2015 Jarosch, K. A., Doolette, A. L., Smernik, R. J., Tamburini, F., Frossard, E. & Bünemann, E. K. (2015). Characterisation of soil organic phosphorus in NaOH-EDTA extracts: a comparison of 31P NMR spectroscopy and enzyme addition assays. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 91, 298-309.
10.1016/j.soilbio.2015.09.010
2015 Mclaren, T., Simpson, R., Mclaughlin, M., Smernik, R., Mcbeath, T., Guppy, C. & Richardson, A. (2015). An assessment of various measures of soil phosphorus and the net accumulation of phosphorus in fertilized soils under pasture. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 178, 4, 543-554.
10.1002/jpln.201400657
2015 Sedghi, S., Madani, S., Hu, C., Silvestre-Albero, A., Skinner, W., Kwong, P. ... Biggs, M. (2015). Control of the spatial homogeneity of pore surface chemistry in particulate activated carbon. Carbon, 95, 144-149.
10.1016/j.carbon.2015.08.019
2015 Ng, E. L., Patti, A. F., Rose, M. T., Schefe, C. R., Smernik, R. J. & Cavagnaro, T. R. (2015). Do organic inputs alter resistance and resilience of soil microbial community to drying?. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 81, 58-66.
10.1016/j.soilbio.2014.10.028
2015 Moata, M., Smernik, R., Doolette, A., McNeill, A. & Macdonald, L. (2015). Improving sensitivity of solution ³¹P NMR analysis in Australian Xeralfs. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 46, 8, 1034-1043.
10.1080/00103624.2015.1019081
2015 Smernik, R., Doolette, A. & Noack, S. (2015). Identification of RNA hydrolysis products in NaOH-EDTA extracts using 31P NMR spectroscopy. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 46, 21, 2746-2756.
10.1080/00103624.2015.1093640
2015 McLaren, T., Smernik, R., McLaughlin, M., McBeath, T., Kirby, J., Simpson, R. ... Richardson, A. (2015). Complex forms of soil organic phosphorus-a major component of soil phosphorus. Environmental Science and Technology, 49, 22, 13238-13245.
10.1021/acs.est.5b02948
2015 Forouzangohar, M., Baldock, J., Smernik, R., Hawke, B. & Bennett, L. (2015). Mid-infrared spectra predict nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of soil carbon. Geoderma, 247-248, 65-72.
10.1016/j.geoderma.2015.02.006
2015 McLaren, T., Smernik, R., Simpson, R., McLaughlin, M., McBeath, T., Guppy, C. & Richardson, A. (2015). Spectral sensitivity of solution <sup>31</sup>P NMR spectroscopy is improved by narrowing the soil to solution ratio to 1:4 for pasture soils of low organic P content. Geoderma, 257-258, 48-57.
10.1016/j.geoderma.2015.02.004
2015 Wiedemeier, D. B., Abiven, S., Hockaday, W. C., Keiluweit, M., Kleber, M., Masiello, C. A. ... Schmidt, M. W. I. (2015). Aromaticity and degree of aromatic condensation of char. Organic Geochemistry, 78, 135-143.
10.1016/j.orggeochem.2014.10.002
2015 Srinivasan, P., Sarmah, A., Smernik, R., Das, O., Farid, M. & Gao, W. (2015). A feasibility study of agricultural and sewage biomass as biochar, bioenergy and biocomposite feedstock: production, characterization and potential applications. Science of the Total Environment, 512-513, 495-505.
10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.01.068
2015 Doolette, A. & Smernik, R. (2015). Quantitative analysis of <sup>31</sup>P NMR spectra of soil extracts-Dealing with overlap of broad and sharp signals. A. J. Simpson (Ed.). Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry, 53, 9, 679-685.
10.1002/mrc.4212
2015 Saidy, A., Smernik, R., Baldock, J., Kaiser, K. & Sanderman, J. (2015). Microbial degradation of organic carbon sorbed to phyllosilicate clays with and without hydrous iron oxide coating. European Journal of Soil Science, 66, 1, 83-94.
10.1111/ejss.12180
2015 Smernik, R. & Kookana, R. (2015). The effects of organic matter-mineral interactions and organic matter chemistry on diuron sorption across a diverse range of soils. Chemosphere, 119, 99-104.
10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.05.066
2015 Annaheim, K., Doolette, A., Smernik, R., Mayer, J., Oberson, A., Frossard, E. & Bünemann, E. (2015). Long-term addition of organic fertilizers has little effect on soil organic phosphorus as characterized by ³¹P NMR spectroscopy and enzyme additions. Geoderma, 257-258, 67-77.
10.1016/j.geoderma.2015.01.014
2014 Hu, C., Sedghi, S., Madani, S., Silvestre-Albero, A., Sakamoto, H., Kwong, P. ... Biggs, M. (2014). Control of the pore size distribution and its spatial homogeneity in particulate activated carbon. Carbon, 78, 113-120.
10.1016/j.carbon.2014.06.054
2014 Langdon, K., Warne, M., Smernik, R., Shareef, A. & Kookana, R. (2014). Persistence of estrogenic activity in soils following land application of biosolids. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 33, 1, 26-28.
10.1002/etc.2395
2014 Plant, E., Smernik, R., VanLeeuwen, J., Greenwood, P. & MacDonald, L. (2014). Changes in the nature of dissolved organics during pulp and paper mill wastewater treatment: a multivariate statistical study combining data from three analytical techniques. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 21, 6, 4265-4275.
10.1007/s11356-013-2351-0
2014 McBeath, A., Smernik, R., Krull, E. & Lehmann, J. (2014). The influence of feedstock and production temperature on biochar carbon chemistry: a solid-state ¹³C NMR study. Biomass and Bioenergy, 60, 121-129.
10.1016/j.biombioe.2013.11.002
2014 Noack, S., McBeath, T., McLaughlin, M., Smernik, R. & Armstrong, R. (2014). Management of crop residues affects the transfer of phosphorus to plant and soil pools: Results from a dual-labelling experiment. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 71, 31-39.
10.1016/j.soilbio.2013.12.022
2014 Noack, S., Smernik, R., McBeath, T., Armstrong, R. & McLaughlin, M. (2014). Assessing crop residue phosphorus speciation using chemical fractionation and solution 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Talanta, 126, 122-129.
10.1016/j.talanta.2014.03.049
2014 Noack, S., McLaughlin, M., Smernik, R., McBeath, T. & Armstrong, R. (2014). Phosphorus speciation in mature wheat and canola plants as affected by phosphorus supply. Plant and Soil, 378, 1, 125-137.
10.1007/s11104-013-2015-3
2014 Ng, E. L., Patti, A., Rose, M., Schefe, C., Wilkinson, K., Smernik, R. & Cavagnaro, T. (2014). Does the chemical nature of soil carbon drive the structure and functioning of soil microbial communities?. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 70, 54-61.
10.1016/j.soilbio.2013.12.004
2014 McLaren, T. I., Smernik, R. J., Guppy, C. N., Bell, M. J. & Tighe, M. K. (2014). The organic P composition of vertisols as determined by ³¹P NMR spectroscopy. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 78, 6, 1893-1902.
10.2136/sssaj2014.04.0139
2013 Peirce, C., Smernik, R. & McBeath, T. (2013). Phosphorus availability in chicken manure is lower with increased stockpiling period, despite a larger orthophosphate content. Plant and Soil, 373, 1-2, 359-372.
10.1007/s11104-013-1807-9
2013 Langdon, K., Warne, M., Smernik, R., Shareef, A. & Kookana, R. (2013). Comparison of degradation between indigenous and spiked bisphenol A and triclosan in a biosolids amended soil. Science of the Total Environment, 447, 56-63.
10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.12.064
2013 Saidy, A., Smernik, R., Baldock, J., Kaiser, K. & Sanderman, J. (2013). The sorption of organic carbon onto differing clay minerals in the presence and absence of hydrous iron oxide. Geoderma, 209, 15-21.
10.1016/j.geoderma.2013.05.026
2013 Forouzangohar, M., Cozzolino, D., Smernik, R., Baldock, J., Forrester, S., Chittleborough, D. & Kookana, R. (2013). Using the power of C-13 NMR to interpret infrared spectra of soil organic matter: A two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy approach. Vibrational Spectroscopy, 66, 76-82.
10.1016/j.vibspec.2013.02.002
2013 McBeath, A., Smernik, R. & Krull, E. (2013). A demonstration of the high variability of chars produced from wood in bushfires. Organic Geochemistry, 55, 38-44.
10.1016/j.orggeochem.2012.11.006
2013 Plant, E., Smernik, R., Greenwood, P., Macdonald, L. & van Leeuwen, J. (2013). The organic chemistry of plant residues: comparison of NMR and pyrolysis data using multivariate statistical approaches. Current Organic Chemistry, 17, 24, 3006-3012.
10.2174/13852728113179990124
2012 Zimmerman, M., Bird, M., Wurster, C., Saiz, G., Goodrick, I., Barta, J. ... Smernik, R. (2012). Rapid degradation of pyrogenic carbon. Global Change Biology, 18, 11, 3306-3316.
10.1111/j.1365-2486.2012.02796.x
2012 VanLeeuwen, J., Lewis, R., Goonan, P., Struve, N., Everson, A., Nothrop, S. ... Rupasinghe, M. (2012). Changes in character of organics in the receiving environment of effluent from a sulphite pulp mill. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 19, 6, 2151-2158.
10.1007/s11356-011-0714-y
2012 Singh, B., Cowie, A. & Smernik, R. (2012). Biochar carbon stability in a clayey soil as a function of feedstock and pyrolysis temperature. Environmental Science & Technology, 46, 21, 11770-11778.
10.1021/es302545b
2012 Noack, S., McLaughlin, M., Smernik, R., McBeath, T. & Armstrong, R. (2012). Crop residue phosphorus: speciation and potential bio-availability. Plant and Soil, 359, 1-2, 375-385.
10.1007/s11104-012-1216-5
2012 Langdon, K., Warne, M., Smernik, R., Shareef, A. & Kookana, R. (2012). Field dissipation of 4-nonylphenol, 4-t-octylphenol, triclosan and bisphenol A following land application of biosolids. Chemosphere, 86, 10, 1050-1058.
10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.11.057
2012 Schmidt, A., Smernik, R. & McBeath, T. (2012). Measuring organic carbon in Calcarosols: understanding the pitfalls and complications. Soil Research, 50, 5, 397-405.
10.1071/SR12134
2012 Mosse, K., Patti, A., Smernik, R., Christen, E. & Cavagnaro, T. (2012). Physicochemical and microbiological effects of long- and short-term winery wastewater application to soils. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 201, 219-228.
10.1016/j.jhazmat.2011.11.071
2012 Saidy, A., Smernik, R., Baldock, J., Kaiser, K., Sanderman, J. & MacDonald, L. (2012). Effects of clay mineralogy and hydrous iron oxides on labile organic carbon stabilisation. Geoderma, 173, 104-110.
10.1016/j.geoderma.2011.12.030
2011 Downie, A., Van Zwieten, L., Smernik, R., Morris, S. & Munroe, P. (2011). Terra Preta Australis: Reassessing the carbon storage capacity of temperate soils. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment, 140, 1-2, 137-147.
10.1016/j.agee.2010.11.020
2011 Doolette, A. L., Smernik, R. J. & Dougherty, W. J. (2011). A quantitative assessment of phosphorus forms in some Australian soils. Soil Research, 49, 2, 152-165.
10.1071/SR10092
2011 Preston, C., Smernik, R., Powers, R., McColl, J. & McBeath, T. (2011). The decomposition of windrowed, chipped logging slash and tree seedling response: A plant growth and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. Organic Geochemistry, 42, 8, 936-946.
10.1016/j.orggeochem.2011.03.026
2011 Lewis, R., van Leeuwen, J., Smernik, R., Chow, C., Everson, A., Nothrop, S. & Beecham, S. (2011). Changes in the organic character of post-coagulated Pinus radiata sulfite pulp mill wastewater under aerated stabilization basin treatment-A laboratory scale study. Chemical Engineering Journal, 175, 1, 160-168.
10.1016/j.cej.2011.09.089
2011 Baumann, K., Marschner, P., Kuhn, T., Smernik, R. & Baldock, J. (2011). Microbial community structure and residue chemistry during decomposition of shoots and roots of young and mature wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in sand. European Journal of Soil Science, 62, 5, 666-675.
10.1111/j.1365-2389.2011.01380.x
2011 Doolette, A., Smernik, R. & Dougherty, W. (2011). Overestimation of the importance of phytate in NaOH-EDTA soil extracts as assessed by (31)P NMR analyses. Organic Geochemistry, 42, 8, 955-964.
10.1016/j.orggeochem.2011.04.004
2011 Langdon, K., Warne, M., Smernik, R., Shareef, A. & Kookana, R. (2011). Selected personal care products and endocrine disruptors in biosolids: An Australia-wide survey. Science of the Total Environment, 409, 6, 1075-1081.
10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.12.013
2011 McLaughlin, M., McBeath, T., Smernik, R., Stacey, S., Ajiboye, A. & Guppy, C. (2011). The chemical nature of P accumulation in agricultural soils-implications for fertiliser management and design: an Australian perspective. Plant and Soil, 349, 1-2 Sp Is, 69-87.
10.1007/s11104-011-0907-7
2011 McBeath, A., Smernik, R., Schneider, M., Schmidt, M. & Plant, E. (2011). Determination of the aromaticity and the degree of aromatic condensation of a thermosequence of wood charcoal using NMR. Organic Geochemistry, 42, 10, 1194-1202.
10.1016/j.orggeochem.2011.08.008
2011 Langdon, K., Warne, M., Smernik, R., Shareef, A. & Kookana, R. (2011). Degradation of 4-nonylphenol, 4-t-octylphenol, bisphenol A and triclosan following biosolids addition to soil under laboratory conditions. Chemosphere, 84, 11, 1556-1562.
10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.05.053
2010 Sarmah, A., Srinivasan, P., Smernik, R., Manley-Harris, M., Antal, M., Downie, A. & Van Zwieten, L. (2010). Retention capacity of biochar-amended New Zealand dairy farm soil for an estrogenic steroid hormone and its primary metabolite. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 48, 6-7 Sp Iss, 648-658.
10.1071/SR10013
2010 Doolette, A., Smernik, R. & Dougherty, W. (2010). Rapid decomposition of phytate applied to a calcareous soil demonstrated by a solution 31P NMR study. European Journal of Soil Science, 61, 4, 563-575.
10.1111/j.1365-2389.2010.01259.x
2010 Berwick, L., Greenwood, P. & Smernik, R. (2010). The use of MSSV pyrolysis to assist the molecular characterisation of aquatic natural organic matter. Water Research, 44, 10, 3039-3054.
10.1016/j.watres.2010.02.023
2010 Joseph, S., Camps-Arbestain, M., Lin, Y., Munroe, P., Chia, C., Hook, J. ... Amonette, J. (2010). An investigation into the reactions of biochar in soil. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 48, 6-7 Sp Iss, 501-515.
10.1071/SR10009
2010 Fuertes, A., Arbestain, M., Sevilla, M., Macia-Agullo, J., Fiol, S., Lopez, R. ... Macias, F. (2010). Chemical and structural properties of carbonaceous products obtained by pyrolysis and hydrothermal carbonisation of corn stover. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 48, 6-7 Sp Iss, 618-626.
10.1071/SR10010
2010 Varcoe, J., van Leeuwen, J., Chittleborough, D., Cox, J., Smernik, R. & Heitz, A. (2010). Changes in water quality following gypsum application to catchment soils of the Mount Lofty Ranges, South Australia. Organic Geochemistry, 41, 2, 116-123.
10.1016/j.orggeochem.2009.09.010
2009 Gholamalizadeh Ahangar, A., Smernik, R., Kookana, R. & Chittleborough, D. (2009). The effect of lipids on the sorption of diuron and phenanthrene in soils. Chemosphere, 74, 8, 1062-1068.
10.1016/j.chemosphere.2008.10.054
2009 Swanston, C. & Smernik, R. (2009). Preface. Biogeochemistry, 92, 1-2, 1-1.
10.1007/s10533-008-9267-7
2009 Forouzangohar, M., Cozzolino, D., Kookana, R., Smernik, R., Forrester, S. & Chittleborough, D. (2009). Direct Comparison between Visible Near- and Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy for Describing Diuron Sorption in Soils. Environmental Science & Technology, 43, 11, 4049-4055.
10.1021/es8029945
2009 Issa, G., Patti, A., Smernik, R. & Wilkinson, K. (2009). Chemical composition of composted grape marc. Water Science and Technology, 60, 5, 1265-1271.
10.2166/wst.2009.564
2009 Ahangar, A., Smernik, R., Kookana, R. & Chittleborough, D. (2009). The effect of solvent-conditioning on soil organic matter sorption affinity for diuron and phenanthrene. Chemosphere, 76, 8, 1062-1066.
10.1016/j.chemosphere.2009.04.027
2009 Krull, E., Haynes, D., Lamontagne, S., Gell, P., McKirdy, D., Hancock, G. ... Smernik, R. (2009). Changes in the chemistry of sedimentary organic matter within the Coorong over space and time. Biogeochemistry, 92, 1-2, 9-25.
10.1007/s10533-008-9236-1
2009 Smernik, R. & Skjemstad, J. (2009). Mechanisms of organic matter stabilization and destabilization in soils and sediments: conference introduction. Biogeochemistry, 92, 1-2, 3-8.
10.1007/s10533-008-9269-5
2009 McBeath, A. & Smernik, R. (2009). Variation in the degree of aromatic condensation of chars. Organic Geochemistry, 40, 12, 1161-1168.
10.1016/j.orggeochem.2009.09.006
2009 Baumann, K., Marschner, P., Smernik, R. & Baldock, J. (2009). Residue chemistry and microbial community structure during decomposition of eucalypt, wheat and vetch residues. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 41, 9, 1966-1975.
10.1016/j.soilbio.2009.06.022
2009 Hockaday, W., Masiello, C., Randerson, J., Smernik, R., Baldock, J., Chadwick, O. & Harden, J. (2009). Measurement of soil carbon oxidation state and oxidative ratio by ¹³C nuclear magnetic resonance. Journal of Geophysical Research, 114, 2, 2014-2014.
10.1029/2008JG000803
2009 Doolette, A., Smernik, R. & Dougherty, W. (2009). Spiking Improved Solution Phosphorus-31 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Identification of Soil Phosphorus Compounds. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 73, 3, 919-927.
10.2136/sssaj2008.0192
2008 Nguyen, B., Lehmann, J., Kinyangi, J., Smernik, R., Riha, S. & Engelhard, M. (2008). Long-term black carbon dynamics in cultivated soil. Biogeochemistry, 89, 3, 295-308.
10.1007/s10533-008-9220-9
2008 Smith, M., Smernik, R., Merrington, G. & Tibbett, M. (2008). Changes in sewage sludge carbon forms along a treatment stream. Chemosphere, 72, 6, 981-985.
10.1016/j.chemosphere.2008.02.062
2008 Hammes, K., Smernik, R., Skjemstad, J. & Schmidt, M. (2008). Characterisation and evaluation of reference materials for black carbon analysis using elemental composition, colour, BET surface area and C-¹³ NMR spectroscopy. Applied Geochemistry, 23, 8, 2113-2122.
10.1016/j.apgeochem.2008.04.023
2008 Forouzangohar, M., Kookana, R., Forrester, S., Smernik, R. & Chittleborough, D. (2008). Midinfrared spectroscopy and chemometrics to predict diuron sorption coefficients in soils. Environmental Science & Technology, 42, 9, 3283-3288.
10.1021/es702750d
2008 Buenemann, E., Smernik, R., Marschner, P. & McNeill, A. (2008). Microbial synthesis of organic and condensed forms of phosphorus in acid and calcareous soils. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 40, 4, 932-946.
10.1016/j.soilbio.2007.11.012
2008 Gholamalizadeh Ahangar, A., Smernik, R., Kookana, R. & Chittleborough, D. (2008). Separating the effects of organic matter-mineral interactions and organic matter chemistry on the sorption of diuron and phenanthrene. Chemosphere, 72, 6, 886-890.
10.1016/j.chemosphere.2008.03.059
2008 Buenemann, E., Marschner, P., Smernik, R., Conyers, M. & McNeill, A. (2008). Soil organic phosphorus and microbial community composition as affected by 26 years of different management strategies. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 44, 5, 717-726.
10.1007/s00374-007-0254-2
2008 Buenemann, E., Smernik, R., Doolette, A., Marschner, P., Wakelin, S. & McNeill, A. (2008). Forms of phosphorus in bacteria and fungi isolated from two Australian soils. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 40, 7, 1908-1915.
10.1016/j.soilbio.2008.03.017
2008 Gholamalizadeh Ahangar, A., Smernik, R., Kookana, R. & Chittleborough, D. (2008). Clear effects of soil organic matter chemistry, as determined by NMR spectroscopy, on the sorption of diuron. Chemosphere, 70, 7, 1153-1160.
10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.08.054
2008 Smernik, R., Eckmeier, E. & Schmidt, M. (2008). Comparison of solid-state 13C NMR spectra of soil organic matter from an experimental burning site acquired at two field strengths. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 46, 2, 122-127.
10.1071/SR07128
2007 Hammes, K., Schmidt, M., Smernik, R., Currie, L., Ball, W., Nguyen, T. ... Amelung, W. (2007). Comparison of quantification methods to measure fire-derived (black/elemental) carbon in soils and sediments using reference materials from soil water sediment and the atmosphere. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 21, 3, WWW 1-WWW16.
10.1029/2006GB002914
2007 Dougherty, W., Smernik, R., Buenemann, E. & Chittleborough, D. (2007). On the use of hydrofluoric acid pretreatment of soils for phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 71, 4, 1111-1118.
10.2136/sssaj2006.0300
2007 Smernik, R. & Dougherty, W. (2007). Identification of phytate in phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectra: The need for spiking. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 71, 3, 1045-1050.
10.2136/sssaj2006.0295
2007 Ha, K., Marschner, P., Buenemann, E. & Smernik, R. (2007). Chemical changes and phosphorus release during decomposition of pea residues in soil. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 39, 10, 2696-2699.
10.1016/j.soilbio.2007.05.017
2007 Nicholson, E., Krull, E., Smernik, R., Zawadzki, A., Gell, P. & Gillanders, B. (2007). Environmental change in the coastal wetlands near Adelaide, Australia. Quaternary International, 167-168, 306-306.
10.1016/j.quaint.2007.04.001
2006 Smernik, R. (2006). The effect of water content on solid-state C-13 NMR quantitation and relaxation rates of soil organic matter. European Journal of Soil Science, 57, 5, 665-676.
10.1111/j.1365-2389.2005.00763.x
2006 Hammes, K., Smernik, R., Skjemstad, J., Herzog, A., Vogt, U. & Schmidt, M. (2006). Synthesis and characterisation of laboratory-charred grass straw (Oryza saliva) and chestnut wood (Castanea sativa) as reference materials for black carbon quantification. Organic Geochemistry, 37, 11, 1629-1633.
10.1016/j.orggeochem.2006.07.003
2006 Smernik, R., Schwark, L. & Schmidt, M. (2006). Assessing the quantitative reliability of solid-state C-13 NMR spectra of kerogens across a gradient of thermal maturity. Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, 29, 4, 312-321.
10.1016/j.ssnmr.2005.10.014
2006 McBeath, T., Smernik, R., Lombi, E. & McLaughlin, M. (2006). Hydrolysis of pyrophosphate in a highly calcareous soil: A solid-state phosphorus-31 NMR study. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 70, 3, 856-862.
10.2136/sssaj2005.0184
2006 Dickens, A., Baldock, J., Smernik, R., Wakeham, S., Arnarson, T., Gelinas, Y. & Hedges, J. (2006). Solid-state C-13 NMR analysis of size and density fractions of marine sediments: Insight into organic carbon sources and preservation mechanisms. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 70, 3, 666-686.
10.1016/j.gca.2005.10.024
2006 Smernik, R., Kookana, R. & Skjemstad, J. (2006). NMR characterization of 13C-Benzene sorbed to natural and prepared charcoals. Environmental Science & Technology, 40, 6, 1764-1769.
10.1021/es051895o
2005 Smernik, R. (2005). Solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopic studies of soil organic matter at two magnetic field strengths. Geoderma, 125, 3-4, 249-271.
10.1016/j.geoderma.2004.08.003
2005 Dougherty, W., Smernik, R. & Chittleborough, D. (2005). Application of spin counting to the solid-state 31P NMR analysis of pasture soils with varying phosphorus content. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 69, 6, 2058-2070.
10.2136/sssaj2005.0017
2005 Smernik, R. (2005). A new way to use solid-state carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to study the sorption of organic compounds to soil organic matter.. Journal of Environmental Quality, 34, 4, 1194-1204.
10.2134/jeq2004.0371
2005 Golding, C., Smernik, R. & Birch, G. (2005). Investigation of the role of structural domains identified in sedimentary organic matter in the sorption of hydrophobic organic compounds. Environmental Science & Technology, 39, 11, 3925-3932.
10.1021/es048171h
2005 Johnson, C., Smernik, R., Siccama, T., Kiemle, D., Xu, Z. & Vogt, D. (2005). Using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for the study of northern hardwood tissues. Canadian Journal of Forest Research-Revue Canadienne de Recherche Forestiere, 35, 8, 1821-1831.
10.1139/X05-122
2005 Smernik, R. & Baldock, J. (2005). Solid-state 15N NMR analysis of highly 15N-enriched plant materials. Plant and Soil, 275, 1-2, 271-283.
10.1007/s11104-005-2153-3
2005 Smernik, R. & Baldock, J. (2005). Does solid-state 15N NMR spectroscopy detect all soil organic nitrogen?. Biogeochemistry, 75, 3, 507-528.
10.1007/s10533-005-2857-8
2004 Smernik, R., Oliver, I. & McLaughlin, M. (2004). Changes in the nature of sewage sludge organic matter during a twenty-one-month incubation. Journal of Environmental Quality, 33, 5, 1924-1929.
10.2134/jeq2004.1924
2004 Field, L., Li, H., Messerle, B., Smernik, R. & Turner, P. (2004). An iron(II) dihydrogen hydrido complex containing the tripodal tetraphosphine ligand P(CH2CH2PMe2)3. Dalton Transactions (Print Edition), 2004, 9, 1418-1423.
10.1039/b401954g
2004 Merrington, G. & Smernik, R. (2004). Cadmium sorption in biosolids amended soils: results from a field trial. Science of the Total Environment, 327, 1-3, 239-247.
10.1016/S0048-9697(03)00166-9
2004 Smernik, R., Olk, D. & Mahieu, N. (2004). Quantitative solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy of organic matter fractions in lowland rice soils. European Journal of Soil Science, 55, 2, 367-379.
10.1111/j.1365-2389.2004.00600.x
2004 Golding, C., Smernik, R. & Birch, G. (2004). Characterisation of sedimentary organic matter from three south-eastern Australian estuaries using solid-state 13C-NMR techniques. Marine and Freshwater Research, 55, 3, 285-293.
10.1071/MF03167
2003 Merrington, G., Oliver, I., Smernik, R. & McLaughlin, M. (2003). The influence of sewage sludge properties on sludge-borne metal availability. Advances in Environmental Research, 8, 1, 21-36.
10.1016/S1093-0191(02)00139-9
2003 Smernik, R. & Oades, J. (2003). Spin accounting and RESTORE - two new methods to improve quantitation in solid-state 13C NMR analysis of soil organic matter. European Journal of Soil Science, 54, 1, 103-116.
10.1046/j.1365-2389.2003.00497.x
2003 Smernik, R., Oliver, I. & Merrington, G. (2003). Advanced solid-state carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic studies of sewage sludge organic matter: Detection of organic 'domains'. Journal of Environmental Quality, 32, 4, 1523-1533.
10.2134/jeq2003.1523
2003 Smernik, R., Oliver, I. & Merrington, G. (2003). Characterization of sewage sludge organic matter using solid-state carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Journal of Environmental Quality, 32, 4, 1516-1522.
10.2134/jeq2003.1516
2002 Baldock, J. & Smernik, R. (2002). Chemical composition and bioavailability of thermally altered Pinus resinosa (Red Pine) wood. Organic Geochemistry, 33, 9, 1093-1109.
10.1016/S0146-6380(02)00062-1
2002 Smernik, R., Baldock, J., Oades, J. & Whittaker, A. (2002). Determination of T1ρH relaxation rates in charred and uncharred wood and consequences for NMR quantitation. Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, 22, 1, 50-70.
10.1006/snmr.2002.0064
2002 Smernik, R. & Oades, J. (2002). Paramagnetic effects on solid state carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of soil organic matter. Journal of Environmental Quality, 31, 2, 414-420.
10.2134/jeq2002.0414
2002 Smernik, R., Baldock, J. & Oades, J. (2002). Impact of remote protonation on 13C CPMAS NMR quantitation of charred and uncharred wood. Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, 22, 1, 71-82.
10.1006/snmr.2002.0065
2001 Smernik, R. & Oades, J. (2001). Background signal in solid state 13C NMR spectra of soil organic matter (SOM) - quantification and minimization. Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, 20, 1-2, 74-84.
10.1006/snmr.2001.0031
2001 Smernik, R. & Oades, J. (2001). Solid-state 13C-NMR dipolar dephasing experiments for quantifying protonated and non-protonated carbon in soil organic matter and model systems. European Journal of Soil Science, 52, 1, 103-120.
10.1046/j.1365-2389.2001.00364.x
2001 Petsch, S., Smernik, R., Eglinton, T. & Oades, J. (2001). A solid state 13C-NMR study of kerogen degradation during black shale weathering. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 65, 12, 1867-1882.
10.1016/S0016-7037(01)00572-5
2000 Smernik, R., Skjemstad, J. & Oades, J. (2000). Virtual fractionation of charcoal from organic matter using solid state 13C NMR spectral editing. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 38, 3, 665-683.
10.1071/SR99115
2000 Smernik, R. & Oades, J. (2000). The use of spin counting for determining quantitation in solid state 13C NMR spectra of natural organic matter: 2. HF-treated soil fractions. Geoderma, 96, 3, 159-171.
10.1016/S0016-7061(00)00007-0
2000 Smernik, R. & Oades, J. (2000). The use of spin counting for determining quantitation in solid state 13C NMR spectra of natural organic matter: 1. Model systems and the effects of paramagnetic impurities. Geoderma, 96, 1-2, 101-129.
10.1016/S0016-7061(00)00006-9
2000 Smernik, R. & Oades, J. (2000). Effect of paramagnetic cations on solid state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of natural organic materials. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 31, 19-20, 3011-3026.
10.1080/00103620009370646
1999 Skjemstad, J., Taylor, J. & Smernik, R. (1999). Estimation of charcoal (char) in soils. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 30, 15-16, 2283-2298.
10.1080/00103629909370372
1999 Smernik, R. & Oades, J. (1999). Effects of added paramagnetic ions on the 13C CP/MAS NMR spectrum of a de-ashed soil. Geoderma, 89, 3-4, 219-248.
10.1016/S0016-7061(98)00085-8
1999 Field, L., Messerle, B., Smernik, R., Hambley, T. & Turner, P. (1999). Butenynyl complexes of iron(II) containing the tripodal tetraphosphine ligand P(CH2CH2PMe2)3. Journal of the Chemical Society - Dalton Transactions, 15, 2557-2562.
10.1039/a902784j
1997 Field, L., Messerle, B. & Smernik, R. (1997). Synthesis and Properties of Iron(II) Hydride Complexes Containing the Tripodal Tetraphosphine Ligand P(CH2CH2PMe2)3. Inorganic Chemistry, 36, 26, 5984-5990.
10.1021/ic970143v
1997 Field, L., Messerle, B., Smernik, R., Hambley, T. & Turner, P. (1997). Iron Complexes Containing the Tripodal Tetraphosphine Ligand P(CH2CH2PMe2)3. Inorganic Chemistry, 36, 13, 2884-2892.
10.1021/ic970030b
1993 Bampos, N., Field, L., Messerle, B. & Smernik, R. (1993). Synthesis of New Tetradentate Oligophosphine Ligands. Inorganic Chemistry, 32, 19, 4084-4088.
10.1021/ic00071a019
1992 Smith, B., Smernik, R. & Radom, L. (1992). The vinylidene-acetylene rearrangement. A phantom minimum on the MP2 potential energy surface. Chemical Physics Letters, 188, 5-6, 589-594.
10.1016/0009-2614(92)80871-8

Book Chapters

Year Citation
2011 Doolette, A. & Smernik, R. (2011). Soil organic phosphorous speciation using spectroscopic techniques. In E. Bunemann (Ed.), Phosphorus in Action: Biological Processes in Soil Phosphorus Cycling (pp. 3-36). Netherlands: Springer.
10.1007/978-3-642-15271-9_1
2009 Smernik, R. (2009). Biochar and sorption of organic compounds. In J. Lehmann & S. Joseph (Eds.), Biochar for Environmental Management. Science and Technology (pp. 289-296). United Kingdom: Earthscan.
10.4324/9781849770552
2009 Krull, E., Baldock, J., Skjemstad, J. & Smernik, R. (2009). Characteristics of biochar: organo-chemical properties. In J. Lehmann & S. Joseph (Eds.), Biochar for Environmental Management. Science and Technology (pp. 53-66). United Kingdom and United States: Earthscan.
10.4324/9781849770552

Conference Papers

Year Citation
2015 Awad, J., van Leeuwen, J., Chow, C., Drikas, M. & Smernik, R. (2015). Modelling THM formation potential based on the character of organics - in catchments and drinking water sources. 21st International Congress on Modelling and Simulation (MODSIM) held jointly with the 23rd National Conference of the Australian-Society-for-Operations-Research / DSTO led Defence Operations Research Symposium (DORS. T. Weber, M. McPhee & R. Anderssen (Eds.) Gold Coast, AUSTRALIA.
2015 Schefe, C., Barlow, K., Robinson, N., Crawford, D., McLaren, T., Smernik, R. ... Kitching, M. (2015). 100 Years of superphosphate addition to pasture in an acid soil - Current nutrient status and future management. Soil Change Matters Workshop. Bendigo, AUSTRALIA.
10.1071/SR14241
2014 Rivers, C., McLaren, T., McLaughlin, M. J., Smernik, R., McBeath, T., Guppy, C. ... Richardson, A. (2014). Tracking fertiliser P in pasture systems using a novel method of creating 33P-labelled single superphosphate. Soil Science Australia National Soil Science Conference: Securing Australia's soils - for profitable industries and healthy landscapes. A. Patti, C. Tang & V. Wong (Eds.) Melbourne, Australia.
2010 Doolette, A., Smernik, R. & Dougherty, W. (2010). A quantitative assessment of phosphorus forms in Australian soils. World Congress of Soil Science (WCSS). Brisbane, Queensland.
2009 Nguyen, B., Lehmann, J., Kinyangi, J., Smernik, R., Riha, S. & Engelhard, M. (2009). Long-term black carbon dynamics in cultivated soil. 3rd International Conference on Mechanisms of Organic Matter Stabilization and Destabilization in Soils and Sediments. Glenelg, AUSTRALIA.
10.1007/s10533-008-9248-x
2008 Ahangar, A., Smernik, R. & Kookana, R. (2008). Role of the chemistry of soil organic matter on the sorption of diuron. 2nd Conference on Environmental Toxicology. A. Kungolos & M. Zamorano (Eds.) Granada, SPAIN.
10.2495/ETOX080341
2005 McBeath, T., Lombi, E., McLaughlin, M. & Smernik, R. (2005). The Availability and Degradation of Pyrophosphate Fertiliser in Australian Soil Types. Beijing, China.
2005 Masiello, C. A., Baldock, J. A., Randerson, J. T., Chadwick, O. A., Smernik, R. J., Deco, R. M. ... Mack, M. C. (2005). Natural range in oxidative ratio of environmental organic matter.. 229th National Meeting of the American-Chemical-Society. San Diego, CA.
2005 McBeath, T., Lombi, E., McLaughlin, M., Holloway, R., Smernik, R. & Buenemann, E. (2005). Hydrolysis and absorption of pyrophosphate in Australian soils. Fluid Forum. Scottsdale, Arizona, USA.
2004 Lombi, E., McLaughlin, M., McBeath, T., Stacey, S., Smernik, R., Johnston, C. ... Holloway, R. (2004). Chemistry of fluid phosphorus fertilisers in alkaline soils. Australian Fluid Fertiliser Workshop. J. Kelly, N. Wojcik & M. M. eds (Eds.) Adelaide SA.
2004 Masiello, C. A., Smernik, R. J., Chadwick, O. A. & Randerson, J. T. (2004). Oxidation state of natural organic materials as an organic geochemical tracer: Prospects for measurement via C-13 NMR.. 227th National Meeting of the American-Chemical Society. Anaheim, CA.
Position
Research Fellow
Phone
83137436
Fax
8313 6511
Campus
Waite - CSIRO
Building
Prescott Building
Room Number
3 04
Org Unit
School of Agriculture, Food and Wine

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