Toby Hughes

Associate Professor Toby Hughes

Associate Professor

Adelaide Dental School

Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences

Eligible to supervise Masters and PhD - email supervisor to discuss availability.


My primary research interest is identifying genes associated with dental development and oral health. Other interests include genotype x genotype interactions associated with oral micro-flora, functional genomics of oral development, and epigenetic modulation of gene expression.

I am currently involved in a number of research projects with common underlying themes.  One is modelling family data to establish the relative contributions of genes and environment to observed variation in features such as tooth size and spacing, cusp spacing, 3D surface morphology, arch shape, and occlusion. I have developed longitudinal models to identify common and unique genetic factors associated with the primary, mixed and permanent dentitions.

Another project is examining two closely related developmental events in Australian newborn twins - timing of emergence of the primary teeth and timing of colonisation of the oral cavity by Mutans streptococci, a primary agent in dental decay. Evidence suggests the prevalence of delayed tooth emergence is increasing in developed populations, presenting a smaller window of opportunity for colonisation and reducing the incidence of decay in primary teeth.

Both projects establish a baseline to develop models incorporating molecular data arising from the human genome project. We are planning to conduct genetic linkage and association analyses on data arising from both studies, to identify specific genes that contribute significantly to orofacial growth and development, and to oral health.

Date Project/ No. Investigators Funding Body Amount
2018 - Hughes School of Dentistry - RIBG $3,492
2018 SSP Hughes Faculty of Health Sciences - SSP $6,188
2018 - Hughes Faculty of Health Sciences - Travel Award $3,000
2018-2019 APP1147383 Hughes, Adler, Townsend, Bockmann National Health and Medical Research Council $284,652
2017 29-2016 Williams, Adler, Oshlack, Townsend, Hughes Australian Dental Research Foundation $10,920
2016-2017 161328 Hughes, Townsend, Adler, Bockmann Channel 7 Children's Research Foundation $75,000
2014-2016 APP1062911 Adler, Hughes, Townsend, Arora National Health and Medical Research Council $384,410
2015 03/2014 Ahmed, Ranjitkar, Anderson, Townsend, Hughes Australian Dental Research Foundation $5,000
2013-2016 1R01-DE19665 Hughes, Craig, Saffery, Townsend, Kilpatrick National Institutes of Health $644,189
2013 09/2012 Mihailidis, Hughes, Bockmann, Winning, Townsend Australian Dental Research Foundation $7,650
2013 08/2012 Tan, Townsend, Hughes, Sampson Australian Dental Research Foundation $2,394
2012 - Zilm, Fitzimmons, Marchant, Hughes et al School of Dentistry $5,000
2012 - Hughes, Fitzimmons, Zilm, Adler School of Dentistry $5,000
2012 37/2011 Odeh, Townsend, Mihailidis, Hughes, Lahdesmaki Australian Dental Research Foundation $4,827
2011-2013 APP1006294 Townsend, Seow, Hughes National Health and Medical Research Council $322,524
2011 - Zilm, Fitzimmons, Marchant, Hughes et al School of Dentistry $18,500
2011 - Coates, Bartold, Howe, Hughes University of South Australia $10,000
2011 62/2010 Gagliardi,Sampson, Townsend, Hughes Australian Dental Research Foundation $1,400
2011 70/2010 Ashar, Hughes, James, Townsend, Kaidonis Australian Dental Research Foundation $7,000
2010 640305 Fitzimmons, Hughes et al National Health and Medical Research Council $10,000
2010 - Mihailidis, Bockmann, Hughes, Seow, Townsend Australian Dental Industry Association $5,000
2010 26/2009 Ribeiro, Townsend, Sampson, Hughes, Brook Australian Dental Research Foundation $2,800
2010 28/2009 Mihailidis, Hughes, Bockmann, Winning, Townsend Australian Dental Research Foundation $3,340
2010 27/2009 Mihailidis, Bockmann, Hughes, Seow, Townsend Australian Dental Research Foundation $12,290
2010 32/2009 Hughes, Townsend Australian Dental Research Foundation $8,000
2009-2010 - Townsend, Hughes, Bockmann Financial Markets Foundation for Children $50,000
2008 - Hughes, Townsend School of Dentistry $5,220
2008 - Hughes, Townsend School of Dentistry $2,378
2008 49/2007 Hughes, Townsend Australian Dental Research Foundation $13,430
2007 ??/2006 Townsend, Seow, Gotjamanos, Hughes, Gully, Richards Australian Dental Research Foundation $3,000
2007 - Sanders, McNamara, Hughes, Slade, Bartold School of Dentistry $5,950
2007 - McNamara, Hughes School of Dentistry $4,760
2007 - Hughes, Bockmann, Townsend, Gully School of Dentistry $5,865
2007 - Hughes Faculty of Health Science $10,000
2006 - Hughes, Townsend School of Dentistry $2,000
2005-2007 APP349448 Townsend, Seow, Gotjamanos, Hughes, Gully, Richards National Health and Medical Research Council $514,150
2005-2006 - Hughes Faculty of Health Science $13,000
2003 - Townsend, Hughes, Apps Australian Dental Research Foundation $2,200
2002 - Townsend, Hughes, Race Australian Dental Research Foundation $2,200
2002 - Townsend, Hughes, Zaninovich Faculty of Health Science $1,400

Courses Developed and Taught

Bachelor of Dental Surgery

2012-present     Dental Science & Practice III (single stream program)

2011-present     Dental Science & Practice II (single stream program)

2010-present     Dental Science & Practice I (single stream program)

2007-2011         Dental Health Science III

2006-2009         Human Biology ID

1999-2010         Dental Health Science II

1999-2009         Dental Health Science I

Bachelor of Oral Health

2007-present     Human Biology IOH

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  • Past Higher Degree by Research Supervision (University of Adelaide)

    Date Role Research Topic Program Degree Type Student Load Student Name
    2014 - 2018 Co-Supervisor The Nature and Extent of Sexual Dimorphism in Dental and Dermatoglyphic Traits of Twins Doctor of Philosophy Doctorate Full Time Mr Richard Jonathan Ordonez Taduran
    2011 - 2014 Co-Supervisor A study of post-mortem degradation of teeth to advance forensic DNA analysis as a tool for Human identification Doctor of Philosophy Doctorate Full Time Dr Denice Higgins
    2011 - 2013 Co-Supervisor Infraocclusion of Primary Molars and Associated Dental Anomalies in Twins and Singletons: What is the Underlying Aetiology? Doctor of Philosophy Doctorate Full Time Dr Ruba Mohammad Mousa Odeh
    2010 - 2015 Principal Supervisor PATTERNING OF THE HUMAN DENTITION: IMPLICATIONS FOR FORENSIC ODONTOLOGY Doctor of Philosophy Doctorate Full Time Dr Nor Atika Md Ashar
    2010 - 2013 Co-Supervisor A Longitudinal Study of Changes in Tooth Size and Dental Arch Dimensions from the Mixed to Permanent Dentitions in Australian Aboriginals Doctor of Clinical Dentistry Doctorate Full Time Dr Wee Han Tan
    2009 - 2013 Co-Supervisor The Development of the Curve of Spee in Australian Twins Doctor of Clinical Dentistry Doctorate Full Time Dr Antonio Gagliardi
    2008 - 2012 Co-Supervisor Increased Tooth Crown Size in Females from Opposite-Sex Dizygotic Twins: A Possible Intrauterine Hormonal Influence on Dental Development Doctor of Philosophy Doctorate Full Time Mrs Daniela Cisoto Ribeiro
  • Other Supervision Activities

    Date Role Research Topic Location Program Supervision Type Student Load Student Name
    2019 - ongoing Co-Supervisor The genetics of molar-incisor hypomineralistion The University of Sydney PhD Doctorate Part Time Neeta Prabhu
    2018 - ongoing Principal Supervisor Speech acquisition and oral anatomy The University of Adelaide BSciDent(Hons) Honours Part Time Diem Tang
    2018 - ongoing Principal Supervisor The oral microbiome & dental caries The University of Adelaide BSciDent(Hons) Honours Part Time Amelia Wiese
    2018 - ongoing Co-Supervisor Antibiotic resistance in the oral microbiome The University of Sydney PhD Doctorate Part Time Smitha Sukumar
    2015 - 2015 Co-Supervisor Significance of consensus, experience and training in forensic odontology ante-mortem dental data interpretation and transcription The University of Adelaide GDip.Forensic Odontology Other Full Time Rabiah Rahmat
    2015 - 2015 Co-Supervisor Quantifying variation in dental record interpretation and transcription The University of Adelaide GDip.Forensic Odontology Other Full Time Ketki Chandewar
    2014 - 2016 Co-Supervisor The roles of glypicans 1 and 3 in craniofacial and dental morphogenesis: a mouse model using 3D microCT The University of Adelaide BSciDent(Hons) Honours Part Time Mustafa Ahmed
    2014 - 2016 Co-Supervisor The effects of the Y chromosome and intrauterine male hormones on human tooth size and shape The University of Adelaide Honours Part Time Felicity Lam
    2014 - 2015 Co-Supervisor Intrauterine male hormone effects on dental arch dimensions in female twins The University of Adelaide BSciDent(Hons) Honours Full Time Premal Patel
    2011 - 2013 Principal Supervisor The role of epigenetics in agenic and supernumerary teeth – evidence from MZ twins The University of Adelaide Honours Part Time Scott Williams
    2010 - 2011 Co-Supervisor Validation of a laser scanner methodology The University of Adelaide Graduate Diploma in Forensic Odontology Other Full Time Astiti Handayani
    2010 - 2012 Principal Supervisor Composite resin adhesion - an animal model The University of Adelaide Honours Part Time Anina De Vries
    2010 - 2012 Principal Supervisor Fuji IX. A qualitative analysis of its interaction with vital sheep tooth structure in vivo vs. in vitro. A pilot study. The University of Adelaide Honours Part Time Barun Ghosh
    2010 - 2012 Co-Supervisor The influence of chorion type on the emergence of the first primary tooth in Australian twins The University of Adelaide Honours Part Time Elise McConnell
    2009 - 2010 Principal Supervisor Palatal rugae: classification, variation and individuality in the human population The University of Adelaide Honours Full Time Hannah Berman
    2009 - 2011 Co-Supervisor Factors associated with the timing of emergence of the first primary tooth The University of Adelaide Honours Part Time Emmanuel Chan
    2008 - 2011 Co-Supervisor The molecular basis of orthodontic tooth movement - an animal model The University of Adelaide Honours Part Time Chien Wei Tan
    2008 - 2008 Principal Supervisor Development of a mathematical method of dental superimposition using four landmarks of the anterior maxillary dentition The University of Adelaide GDip.Forensic Odontology Other Full Time Lyndall Smythe
    2007 - 2009 Co-Supervisor The impact of Mutans streptococci colonisation, transmissibility and their association with primary tooth emergence on oral health The University of Adelaide Honours Full Time Ruba Odeh
    2007 - 2008 Co-Supervisor Timing of deciduous tooth emergence in Australian twins The University of Adelaide Honours Part Time Sabrina Woodroffe
    2004 - 2005 Co-Supervisor The effect of birth weight on tooth-size variability in twins The University of Adelaide Honours Part Time Mary Apps
    2002 - 2005 Co-Supervisor Age changes in dental arch form of Australian twins The University of Adelaide DClinDent Doctorate Full Time Zuliani Mahmood
    2002 - 2005 Co-Supervisor The association between chorion type and dental variability in Australian monozygotic twins The University of Adelaide Honours Part Time Jonathan Race
  • Position: Associate Professor
  • Phone: 83133739
  • Email: toby.hughes@adelaide.edu.au
  • Campus: North Terrace
  • Building: Helen Mayo South, floor 3
  • Room: S3 31
  • Org Unit: Dental

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