Head of Intestinal Nutrient Sensing Group
Adelaide Medical School
Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences
Eligible to supervise Masters and PhD - email supervisor to discuss availability.
A/Prof Richard L Young is a Senior Research Fellow in the Adelaide Medical School at The University of Adelaide, and the South Australian Health & Medical Research Institute (SAHMRI). He is a member of the Centre of Research Excellence in Translating Nutritional Science to Good Health, which links basic and clinician researchers in world-leading research in diabetes.
A/Prof Young heads the Intestinal Nutrient Sensing Group within the Nutrition, Diabetes and Gut Health Program of SAHMRI Lifelong Health. He investigates the intestinal taste system, which detects dietary sugars and low-calorie sweeteners and, in turn, controls how glucose is absorbed and disposed in the body. He has shown how this system is regulated in health, and the consequences of its dysregulation in type 2 diabetes, critical illness and obesity. This research is supported by the NHMRC (Ideas 2020-23) and is providing new knowledge of gut physiology and microbiology, with the potential to prevent, and better manage, type 2 diabetes and obesity.
My group offers higher degree research projects that span interventional clinical research through to basic research with genetic and disease models. These projects are tailored to the individual and backed by research support from government and industry. Shorter honours projects are also available in these areas. Students will be based in the west-end health precinct at SAHMRI, while clinical studies involve research in the adjacent Royal Adelaide Hospital (RAH).
- Title: Can blocking gut sweet sensing improve blood glucose control for patients with type 2 diabetes? Low-calorie sweeteners are increasingly consumed in the community, but we have shown that their dietary supplementation can worsen control of blood glucose in healthy subjects. Patients with type 2 diabetes may be at even higher risk of worsening blood glucose control due an existing defect in sweet sensing in the gut wall. This project will investigate whether blocking sweet sensing in the gut improves control of blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes. This project will involve clinical research in the RAH and laboratory experiments in SAHMRI. Project start: Semester 1 and 2.
- Title: How does the human gut respond to sweet and bitter stimuli? This project will establish the precise mechanisms that link sensing of bitter (e.g. denatonium) and sweet (e.g. low-calorie sweeteners) in the gut wall and gut bacteria to signals that disrupt host control of blood glucose. This will involve functional and multi-omic experiments in human biopsy tissues and experiments examining gut bacteria in SAHMRI. Project start: Semester 1 and 2.
Date Position Institution name 2016 Associate Professor The University of Adelaide
Date Institution name Country Title — University of Melbourne, Melbourne Australia PhD — University of Adelaide, Adelaide Australia BSc Honours — University of Adelaide, Adelaide Australia BSc
Year Citation 2019 Martin, A., Young, R., Leong, L., Rogers, G., Spencer, N., Jessup, C., & Keating, D. (2019). Cellular regulation of peripheral serotonin. In P. M. Pilowsky (Ed.), Serotonin: The Mediator that Spans Evolution (pp. 137-153). London, United Kingdom: Academic Press.
Year Citation 2018 Nam, Q. N., Naidu, J., Debricini, T., Burgess, J., Safaeian, R., Young, R., & Horowitz, M. (2018). Is dysregulation of intestinal glucose transporters in the morbidly obese responsible for the development of diabetes mellitus?. In JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY Vol. 33 (pp. 218-219). WILEY. 2014 Harrington, A. M., Castro, J., Young, R. L., Kurtz, C. B., Silos-Santiago, I., Nguyen, N. Q., . . . Brierley, S. M. (2014). Distinct Alterations in the Guanylate Cyclase-C (GC-C)/Cyclic GMP (cGMP) Pathway Are Evident Across Different Subtypes of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Patients. In GASTROENTEROLOGY Vol. 146 (pp. S537). Chicago, IL: W B SAUNDERS CO-ELSEVIER INC.
2014 Nguyen, N. Q., Debreceni, T. L., Bambrick, J. E., Chia, B., Wishart, J. M., Deane, A. M., . . . Young, R. L. (2014). Accelerated Glucose Absorption in Proximal Intestine and Its Relationship to Glucose Transporters, Incretin Hormones and Glycaemia in Morbidly Obese Humans: the "X-Factor" of the Foregut Theory?. In GASTROENTEROLOGY Vol. 146 (pp. S108). Chicago, IL: W B SAUNDERS CO-ELSEVIER INC. 2013 Nguyen, N. Q., Debreceni, T. L., Chia, B., Burgstad, C. M., Neo, M., Deane, A. M., . . . Young, R. L. (2013). Intestinal Sweet Taste Receptor and Transporter Expression, Post-Prandial Glycemia and Glucose Absorption in Morbidly Obese Subjects. In GASTROENTEROLOGY Vol. 144 (pp. S836). Orlando, FL: W B SAUNDERS CO-ELSEVIER INC. 2013 Harrington, A. M., Castro, J., Young, R. L., Kurtz, C. B., Silos-Santiago, A., Nguyen, N. Q., . . . Brierley, S. M. (2013). Alterations in the Guanylate Cyclase-C/cGMP Pathway in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome With Constipation. In GASTROENTEROLOGY Vol. 144 (pp. S59-S60). Orlando, FL: W B SAUNDERS CO-ELSEVIER INC. 2011 Young, R. L., Deane, A. M., Chia, B., Horowitz, M., Blackshaw, L. A., & Rayner, C. (2011). Dysregulation of Intestinal Glucose Transporter and Sweet Taste Receptor Expression in Critical Illness. In GASTROENTEROLOGY Vol. 140 (pp. S194). Chicago, IL: W B SAUNDERS CO-ELSEVIER INC. 2011 Little, T., Young, R., Blackshaw, L., Rayner, C., & Feinle-Bisset, C. (2011). Expression of the fatty acid sensors, CD36, GPR119 and GPR120, in the duodenum of humans. Relationships with obesity. In 19th Annual Meeting of the Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior Vol. 575 (pp. S26). Netherlands: Elsevier BV.
2011 Wu, T., Zhao, B., Bound, M., Checklin, H., Bellon, M., Little, T., . . . Rayner, C. (2011). Effects of different sweet preloads on incretin hormone responses, gastric emptying and postprandial glycaemia in healthy humans. In DIABETOLOGIA Vol. 54 (pp. S330). Lisbon, PORTUGAL: SPRINGER. 2010 Isaacs, N., Flach, C., Young, R., Wittert, G., Blackshaw, L., & Page, A. (2010). Anatomy of gastric vagal afferent-leptin interactions in normal and obese mice. In Proceedings Vol. 138 (pp. 0 pages). USA: W.B. Saunders Co..
2010 Harrington, A., Young, R., Brierley, S., & Blackshaw, L. (2010). TRPV1 mediates acid activation of esophageal sensory pathways. In Proceedings of 2010 Joint International Neurogastroenterology and Motility Meeting, NGM 2010 Vol. 22 (pp. 55). UK: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 2007 Pezos, N., Sutherland, K., Brierley, S. M., Horowitz, M., Blackshaw, L. A., & Young, R. L. (2007). Vagal afferents do not directly detect intestinal glucose via a sweet-taste mechanism. In GASTROENTEROLOGY Vol. 132 (pp. A587). Washington, DC: W B SAUNDERS CO-ELSEVIER INC. 2006 Sutherland, K., Cooper, N. J., Horowitz, M., Margolskee, R. F., Blackshaw, L. A., & Young, R. L. (2006). Taste receptor G-protein alpha-gustducin does not colocalise with enteroendocrine cell markers in the mouse intestine. In GASTROENTEROLOGY Vol. 130 (pp. A605). Los Angeles, CA: W B SAUNDERS CO-ELSEVIER INC. 2005 Gountounas, N., Cooper, N., Horowitz, M., Margolskee, R., Blackshaw, L., & Young, R. (2005). Does the gut 'taste' sweet? Identifying glucosensor molecules in the small intestine. In GASTROENTEROLOGY Vol. 128 (pp. A555). Chicago, IL: W B SAUNDERS CO. 2002 Young, R., Cooper, N., & Blackshaw, L. (2002). Neurochemical coding of gastric vago-vagal pathways in the ferret. In JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-LONDON Vol. 543 (pp. 5P). UNIV LIVERPOOL, LIVERPOOL, ENGLAND: CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS.
- 2020-23 Ideas (APP1181145) Young RL, Ivey KL. 'Friend or Foe? Low-calorie sweeteners and glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes'
- 2019-21 Project (APP1164475) Keating DJ, Young RL, Holst JJ, Knop FK. 'Targeting proglucagon cells in the human gut to treat diabetes and obesity'
- 2018-20 Project (APP1147333) Wu T, Rayner CK, Jones KL, Young RL, Feinle-Bisset C. 'Bitter taste as a mediator of food intake and postprandial glycaemia in health and type 2 diabetes'
- 2014-18 Project (APP1081182) Young RL, Rayner CK, Horowitz M ‘Why do sweetened drinks link to type 2 diabetes?’
- 2010-12 Project (APP627127) Young RL 'Glucose detection pathways in the gut'
Australian Research Council
- 2015-18 ARC Linkage (LP150100419) Keating DM, Young RL, Liou A, Jackson VM ‘Mechanisms controlling enteroendocrine hormone secretion in human duodenum’
- 2020 Research Grant. Young RL, Rogers GB, Rayner CK, Horowitz M, Wu T. 'Does the gut microbiome link intake of low-calorie sweeteners to impaired blood glucose control?'
- 2018-19 Millennium Award, Type 2 Diabetes. Young RL, Rayner CK, Horowitz M, Wu T. 'Do artificial sweeteners affect glycaemic control adversely in people with type 2 diabetes?'
- 2013 Research Grant. Young RL, Rayner CK, Blackshaw LA, Horowitz M. 'Postprandial consequences of intestinal sweet taste receptor dysregulation in type 2 diabetes'
- 2008 Research Grant. Young RL, Rayner CK, Blackshaw LA, Horowitz M. 'Characterisation of intestinal sweet-taste molecules in type-2 diabetes'
National Natural Science Foundation of China
- 2019-22 (81870561). Effects of intestinal bitter taste sensing on gastrointestinal hormone secretion and glycaemic control. Wu T, Rayner CK, Young RL, Lu Q, Wang D, Wang X, Chen J, Cai M, Ge M.
The Hospital Research Foundation
- 2018-20 (Translational Research) Young RL, Rayner CK, Rogers GB. 'A bitter tale of artificial sweeteners in Type 2 diabetes?'
- 2018-19 (Project, Inaugural Round) Young RL, Rayner CK, Rogers GB, Horowitz M. 'A bitter tale of artificial sweeteners in human health and Type 2 diabetes?'
Royal Adelaide Hospital
- 2018 Clinical Project (9747) Young RL, Nguyen NQ, Rayner CK, Wu T, Horowitz M. 'Molecular events linking artificial sweetener intake to augmented glucose absorption and dysglycaemia in health and type 2 diabetes'
- 2016 Clinical Project (2155) Wong S, Young RL, Nguyen NQ, Rayner CK. 'Impact of blocking intestinal glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) on glucose absorption, glycaemic control and incretin responses in morbidly obese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus'
- 2014-16 Clinical Project (1772) Young RL, Wu T, Rayner CK. 'Intestinal sweet taste receptor control of glucose absorption in human health and type 2 diabetes'
2013-14 Clinical Project (1483) Young RL, Rayner CK, Nguyen N. 'Molecular determinants of glucose sensing in human gastrointestinal tract'
2012 Clinical Project (7849) Young RL, Deane AM. 'Protein determinants of intestinal carbohydrate malabsorption in critical illness'
2012 Clinical Project Symonds E, Young RL, Nguyen N. 'Evaluation of nutrient sensing in the large intestine and modulation by obesity
2011 (Special Research Project) Deane AM, Young RL. 'The intestinal glucose transporter SGLT-1 as a novel therapeutic target in critical illness'
Intensive Care Foundation Australia
2014 (Research Grant) Young RL, Deane AM. 'Intestinal GLP-2 as a novel target in critical illness-induced malabsorption'
2011 (Research Grant) Deane AM, Young RL, Chapman MJ, Rayner CK, Horowitz M. 'Critical illness & intestinal sweet taste receptors'
Current Higher Degree by Research Supervision (University of Adelaide)
Date Role Research Topic Program Degree Type Student Load Student Name 2020 Principal Supervisor Mechanisms linking low-calorie sweeteners to impaired glycaemic control in human health and type 2 diabetes. Doctor of Philosophy Doctorate Full Time Mr Braden David Rose 2020 Co-Supervisor Adaptive changes of the gastrointestinal tract during pregnancy Doctor of Philosophy Doctorate Full Time Mr Teunis Sebastian Overduin 2019 Principal Supervisor Gut mechanisms linking artificial sweeteners to impaired glycaemic control Doctor of Philosophy Doctorate Full Time Miss Denise Kreuch
Past Higher Degree by Research Supervision (University of Adelaide)
Date Role Research Topic Program Degree Type Student Load Student Name 2012 - 2017 Principal Supervisor Gastrointestinal Nutrient Sensing in Obesity and type 2 Diabetes: Role in Appetite Regulation and Glycaemic Control Doctor of Philosophy Doctorate Full Time Ms Nada Cvijanovic 2004 - 2009 Co-Supervisor Nutrient Sensing Mechanisms in the Small Intestine: Localisation of Taste Molecules in Mice and Humans With and Without Diabetes Doctor of Philosophy Doctorate Full Time Ms Kate Sutherland
Other Supervision Activities
Date Role Research Topic Location Program Supervision Type Student Load Student Name 2014 - ongoing External Supervisor Isolation, purification and characterisation of human enteroendocrine cells Flinders University of South Australia School of Medicine, PhD Doctorate Full Time Emily Wai-Ling Sun
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