Dr Azhar Iqbal
Senior Lecturer
School of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering
Faculty of Sciences, Engineering and Technology
My research can essentially be divided into four areas: 1) Quantum game theory 2) Game theory 3) Applications of geometric algebra, and 4) Mathematical modelling.
1) Quantum game theory: Most of my research is in this area. Quantum game theory extends classical game theory towards the quantum domain. It is now considered a research area within the broader field of quantum information and computation.
Essentially, quantum game theory is the study of strategic interaction among rational agents who share resources of quantum information and quantum computation i.e. quantum superposition and entanglement.
A quantum game can be considered as strategic manoeuvring of a quantum system by agentsconsidered as playersand in many physical implementations of quantum games, local unitary transformations and quantum measurements are involved.
Each player’s payoff, or utility, in a quantum game depends on the strategic choices of all players participating in the considered game and is obtained from outcomes of quantum measurements.
In literature, the history of quantum games is traced to the year 1999 when David Meyer reported [1,2,3] that the quantum algorithm for an oracle problem can be understood as a quantum strategy for a player in a twoplayer zerosum game in which the other player plays classically.
Soon afterwards, Eisert, Wilkens, and Lewenstein [4,5] quantized version of the wellknown game of Prisoners' Dilemma.
In summary, the possibility to view quantum algorithms, as games between quantum and classical players, has added game theory to the set of mathematical tools that are used in present efforts to further extend the list of quantum algorithms.
My contributions in this research area are:
 Study of evolutionary stability in the quantum regime: Introduced in the 1970s by mathematical biologists, the gametheoretical notion of an Evolutionarily Stable Strategy [6,7], usually called an ESS, models an evolving population under evolutionary pressures. It is a refinement notion on the set of symmetric Nash equilibria and is widely believed to be the central stability solution concept of evolutionary game theory. My work on this topic, that appeared in several articles [8,9,10,11,12,13], determined the fate of Evolutionarily Stable Strategies when the interactions among the players of a population, that is engaged in pairwise symmetric games and subjected to evolutionary pressures, become quantummechanical. In this work, I showed that with the pairwise games becoming quantum mechanical, quantum entanglement can also decide the fate of Evolutionarily Stable Strategies. That is, the presence of quantum entanglement can result in not only the emergence of new Nash equilibria, as has been shown previously, but that entanglement can also decide fate of the refinement notion of the Nash equilibrium concept. My work anticipated that there can be quantum mechanical underpinnings for the emergence of selforganization and complexity at molecular level interactions. A review of this work has appeared as a chapter in the book “Quantum Aspects of Life”, published by the Imperial College Press [14].
 Study of the fate of some wellknown gametheoretic solutionconcepts in a quantum game: This work includes, “Social Optimality” [15], “Value of Coalition” [16], “Backwardsinduction outcome” [17] and “Subgame Perfect Outcome” [18].
 Developing an EPR setting for quantum games: To identify the truly quantum content of a quantum game, I developed EinsteinPodolskyRosen (EPR) setting for enacting quantum games [19,20].
 Developing new scheme in constructing quantum games: I developed schemes for quantization of games from the concept of nonfactorizable joint probabilities [21] and from a system of Bell's inequalities [22]. My recent work [40] develops a new scheme for quantum games in which each player's quantum strategy is implemented by using directional choices in threedimensions.
 Quantum games played on networks: In a collaborative work with Dr Qiang Li, we developed a study of quantum games that are played on networks [23].
 Quantum Bayesian games: Bayesian games have more complex underlying probabilities structure and offer a richer environment to study the role of quantum probabilities in quantum games. I presented the first investigations of quantum Bayesian games in two articles [24, 25].
 Using quantum games to describe concept combinations: In a collaborative work [26] with Prof Peter Bruza at Queensland University of Technology, we used quantum games to gain an improved understanding and description of concept combinations in human cognition.
2) Game theory: Game theory is an established branch of mathematics, in which my contributions are:
 An article [27] that develops an extension of the wellknown Selten's game model of ransom kidnapping, and
 Applications of game theory in network/cybersecurity as presented in a review article [40].
3) Applications of geometric algebra: Geometric Algebra, or GA, combines the algebraic structure of Clifford’s algebra with an explicit geometric meaning. It is a coherent mathematical language that augments the powerful geometric intuition with the precision of an algebraic system. My collaborative work with Dr James Chappell on the applications of GA consists of:
 Study of Meyer’s quantum pennyflip game using GA [28];
 Developing a GAbased analysis of the twoplayer [29] and the threeplayer quantum games in an EPRtype setup [30];
 Study of special relativity using the mathematical formalism of GA [31];
 Investigation of Nplayer quantum games in an EPR setting [32];
 Development of an improved formalism for quantum computation based on GA and applying it to Grover's search algorithm [33];
 Exploration of the benefits of the GA formalism for engineers [34];
 Study of the functions of multivector variables in GA [35]; and
 Study of time as a geometric property of the GAbased conception of space [36].
4) Mathematical modelling: Mathematical modelling uses mathematical concepts and language in the description of a system. My work in mathematical modelling consists of:
 Collaborative work [37,38,39] with Dr Omid Kavehei on memristive devices and its applications to circuits and systems simulation;
(Memristor, a portmanteau of “memory” and “resistor”, is a type of passive circuit element that maintains a relationship between the time integrals of current and voltage across a twoterminal element.)
My author IDs, also containing information of my research impact indicators, and the LinkIn profile are at these links:

Appointments
Date Position Institution name 2022  ongoing Senior Lecturer University of Adelaide 2022  ongoing Founder Quantum Interactive Decisions 2020  2022 Associate Professor University of Bahrain 2019  ongoing Senior Associate Game Theory Sage International Australia 2019  ongoing Founder Interactive Decisions 2013  2022 Adjunct Senior Lecturer University of Adelaide 2013  2015 Assistant Professor King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals 2012  2012 Senior Research Associate (ARC grantfunded, Level B) University of Adelaide 2007  2011 Australian Research Council's (ARC) Postdoctoral Research Fellow (Level A) University of Adelaide 2006  2007 Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) Postdoctoral Research Fellow and Visiting Associate Professor Kochi University of Technology 
Language Competencies
Language Competency English Can read, write, speak, understand spoken and peer review Urdu Can read, write, speak, understand spoken and peer review 
Education
Date Institution name Country Title 2002  2006 University of Hull United Kingdom PhD in Applied Mathematics 2002  2006 University of Hull United Kingdom Postgraduate Certificate in Research Training 1992  1995 University of Sheffield United Kingdom BSc (Honours) 
Research Interests

Journals

Book Chapters

Conference Papers
Year Citation 2021 AlSayegh, M. A. K., & Iqbal, A. (2021). The impact of the vaccination and booster shots in containing the COVID19 epidemic in Bahrain: a game theory approach. In Proceedings of the Third International Sustainability and Resilience Conference: Climate Change (SRC 2021) (pp. 16). virtual online: IEEE.
2016 Zhou, S. L., Valchev, D. G., Dinovitser, A., Chappell, J. M., Iqbal, A., Ng, B. W. H., . . . Abbott, D. (2016). Dispersionindependent terahertz classification based on Geometric Algebra for substance detection. In Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz waves (IRMMWTHz), 2016 41st International Conference on Vol. 2016November (pp. 12). online: IEEE.
Scopus12010 Bruza, P., Iqbal, A., & Kitto, K. (2010). The role of nonfactorizability in determining "pseudoclassical" nonseparability. In AAAI Fall Symposium  Technical Report Vol. FS1008 (pp. 2631).
Scopus42010 Bruza, P., Iqbal, A., & Kitto, K. (2010). The role of nonfactorizability in determining ''Pseudoclassical' nonseparability. In Proceedings of Quantum Informatics 2010 (pp. 16). www.aaai.org: AAAI. 2009 Kavehei, O., Kim, Y. S., Iqbal, A., Eshraghian, K., AlSarawi, S., & Abbott, D. (2009). The fourth element: Insights into the Memristor. In Proceedings of ICCCAS 2009 (pp. 921927). USA: IEEE.
Scopus25 WoS262008 Iqbal, A., & Cheon, T. (2008). Constructing multiplayer quantum games from nonfactorizable joint probabilities  art. no. 68020A. In D. Abbott, T. Aste, M. Batchelor, R. Dewar, T. DiMatteo, & T. Guttmann (Eds.), COMPLEX SYSTEMS II Vol. 6802 (pp. A8020). Canberra, AUSTRALIA: SPIEINT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING.
WoS22007 Iqbal, A., & Cheon, T. (2007). Constructing multiplayer quantum games from nonfactorizable joint probabilities. In SPIE Microelectronics, MEMS, and Nanotechnology 2007 Proceedings Vol. 6802 (pp. 19). Sydney: SPIE.
Scopus8 
Conference Items
Year Citation 2017 32nd Annual Meeting and PreConference Programs of the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC 2017): LateBreaking Abstracts (2017). Poster session presented at the meeting of Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer. BMJ.

Internet Publications
Year Citation 2022 Iqbal, A. (2022). An Urdu translation of the Australian National Anthem. 2022 Iqbal, A. (2022). An Urdu translation of the Australian National Anthem. 2019 Iqbal, A., & Abbott, D. (2019). Quantum strategies and evolutionary stability (in Urdu). Eqbal Ahmad Centre for Public Education: https://eacpe.org/. 2019 Iqbal, A., Hoodbhoy, P., & Abbott, D. (2019). Can QuantumMechanical Description of Physical Reality Be Considered Complete? (An Urdu Translation). Eqbal Ahmad Centre for Public Education. 2016 Iqbal, A. (2016). Looking at World Events Through the Prism of Game Theory. SAGE International Australia.
 Faculty of Engineering, Computer & Mathematical Sciences (ECMS) Interdisciplinary Research Grant Scheme 2016 (jointly with Prof Derek Abbott & Dr Virginie Masson) at the University of Adelaide, AU$ 30,000 (20162017)
 Discovery Research Grant DP0771453 and Fellowship (Principal Investigator) from Australian Research Council (ARC) at University of Adelaide, AU$ 247,092 (20072011)
 Research Grant P06330 and Fellowship (Principal Investigator) from Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) at Kochi University of Technology, Japanese Yen 4,958,500 (20062007)
 Fully funded PhD Research Scholarship from the University of Hull, UK, for overseas research students (20022005)
 Fully funded Merit Scholarship from the Government of Pakistan for studying overseas at the University of Sheffield, UK (19921995)
Department of Mathematics, College of Science, University of Bahrain (UoB):
2^{nd} Semester 20202021:
 Fluid Mechanics (Level 3)
 Calculus II (Level 1)
 Calculus & Analytical Geometry II (Level 1)
 Calculus & Analytical Geometry III (Level 2)
1^{st} Semester 20202021:
 Analytical Mechanics (Level 3)
 Methods of Applied Mathematics (Level 3)
 Calculus II (Level 1)
2^{nd} Semester 20192020:
 Calculus II (Level 1)
 Maths for Business Management (Level 1)
 Calculus & Analytic Geometry III (Level 2)
School of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, University of Adelaide:
 Avionic Sensors & Systems Combined (Level 4), 2014 Semester 2: Guest Lecturer
 Communications/Principles of Communication Systems (Combined) (Level 4), 2012 Semester 1: Guest Lecturer
 Communications/Principles of Communication Systems (Combined) (Level 4), 2011 Semester 1: Guest Lecturer
Department of Mathematics & Statistics, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals (KFUPM):
 Methods of Applied Mathematics (Level 3), Jan 2013 to May 2014, taught this course 4 times
 Elements of Differential Equations (Level 2), Jan 2013 to May 2014, taught this course twice
School of Natural Sciences, National University of Sciences & Technology (NUST):
 Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics (Level 4), JulyNov 2006
Riphah International University (RUI):
 Engineering Electromagnetics (Level 2), Sep 2000Sep 2001
Tutoring experience
School of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, University of Adelaide:
 Vector Calculus & Electromagnetics (Level 2), 2022 Semester 2
 Electronic Circuits (Level 2), 2022 Semester 1
 Electronic Circuits (Level 2), 2018 Semester 1
 Electronic Circuits (Level 2), 2017 Semester 1
 Electronic Circuits (Level 2), 2016 Semester 1
 Electronic Systems (Level 1), 2016 Semester 1
Maths Learning Centre (MLC), University of Adelaide:
 Undergrad Maths courses (Various Levels), 2017 to 2019

Memberships
Date Role Membership Country 2017  ongoing Member Game Theory Society Netherlands 2017  ongoing Member Australian Mathematical Society Australia 2016  ongoing Member JSPS Alumni Association of Australia Australia 2011  2014 Member Australian Institute of Physics Australia 2006  ongoing Member COSNetComplex Open Systems Research Network Australia 2006  ongoing Member Australian Nanotechnology Network Australia 
Consulting/Advisories
Date Institution Department Organisation Type Country 2019  ongoing Australian Research Council (ARC) National Competitive Grants Program Scientific research Australia 2019  ongoing Interactive Decisions Management Business and professional Australia 2017  ongoing University of Wollongong Exam Office/Student Services Division  Australia 2017  ongoing National Science Centre (Narodowe Centrum Nauki  NCN)  Scientific research Poland 2015  ongoing University of Sydney Faculty of Engineering & IT  Australia
Connect With Me
External Profiles