Dr Azhar Iqbal
Senior Lecturer
School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Faculty of Sciences, Engineering and Technology
ORCID: 0000000252219384.
My research explores a) intriguing and counterintuitive aspects of quantum superposition and quantum entanglement using mathematical tools and solutionconcepts of game theory b) game theoretical and mathematical modelling, and c) topics in applied mathematics and theoretical physics.
My research interests include a) quantum games, b) game theory, c) applications of geometric algebra, and d) mathematical modelling.
a) Quantum games: The research area of quantum games extends game theory towards the quantum domain and studies strategic interaction among rational agents sharing resources of quantum superposition and entanglement. A quantum game can be considered as strategic maneuvering of a quantum system by agents, considered as players, and usually it involves local unitary transformations and quantum measurement. Each player’ payoff, or utility, depends on the strategic choices of all players and is obtained from outcomes of measurements performed on the quantum system. In 1999 Meyer observed (1,2,3) that the quantum algorithm for an oracle problem can be understood as a quantum strategy for a player in a twoplayer zerosum game in which the other player plays classically. Eisert, Wilkens, and Lewenstein (4,5) then developed a quantized version of the wellknown game of Prisoners' Dilemma. The possibility to view quantum algorithms as games between quantum and classical players added game theory to the set of mathematical tools being used in present efforts to extend the list of quantum algorithms. Our contributions in this research area include:
 Evolutionary stability in the quantum regime: Introduced in the 1970s by mathematical biologists, the gametheoretical notion of an Evolutionarily Stable Strategy (ESS) (6,7) models an evolving population under evolutionary pressures. It is a refinement notion on the set of symmetric Nash equilibria and is the central stability solution concept of evolutionary game theory. Our work (8,9,10,11,12,13) determined how an ESS becomes susceptible when the interactions among agents (players) of a population, under evolutionary pressures, become quantummechanical. This showed that, in a quantized version of a game, the presence of quantum entanglement can result in not only the emergence of new and novel Nash equilibria but quantum entanglement can also decide the fate of a refinement notion of the Nash equilibrium concept. A review of this work appeared in the book chapter 14.
 Entanglement determining the gametheoretic outcomes: We studied fate of some wellknown gametheoretic solutionconcepts in a quantum game, including, “Social Optimality” (15), “Value of Coalition” (16), “Backwardsinduction outcome” (17) and “Subgame Perfect Outcome” (18).
 Introducing EinsteinPodolskyRosen (EPR) setting for quantum games: To identify the truly quantum content of quantum games, we developed an EPR setting for enacting quantum games (19,20).
 Quantum games from nonfactorizable joint probabilities: We developed a new approach in constructing quantum games from the concept of nonfactorizable joint probabilities (21).
 Quantum games from Bell’s inequalities: We developed a new approach to constructing quantum games directly from a system of Bell's inequalities (22).
 Quantum games on networks: We presented a study of quantum games that are played on networks (23).
 Bayesian quantum games: Bayesian games have more complex underlying probabilities structure and offer a richer environment to study the role of quantum probabilities in quantum games. We presented the first investigation of quantum Bayesian games in 24 and a followup paper is 25.
 Concept combinations using quantum games: Our work in 26 uses quantum games to gain an improved understanding and description of concept combinations in human cognition.
 Quantum games when strategies are directional choices: In our recent work in 40, we developed an approach to quantum games in which each player's quantum strategy is implemented by using a directional choice.
b) Game theory: Our work in (classical) game theory include:
 Developing an extension of the wellknown Selten's game model of ransom kidnapping (27);
 Applications of game theory in network/cybersecurity as presented in the review article 40.
c) Applications of geometric algebra: Geometric Algebra (GA) combines the algebraic structure of Clifford’s algebra with an explicit geometric meaning. It is a coherent mathematical language that augments the powerful geometric intuition with the precision of an algebraic system. Our work on the applications of GA include:
 Study of Meyer’s quantum pennyflip game using GA (28);
 Developing a GAbased analysis of the twoplayer (29) and the threeplayer quantum games in an EPRtype setup (30);
 Study of special relativity using the mathematical formalism of GA (31);
 Investigation of Nplayer quantum games in an EPR setting (32);
 Development of an improved formalism for quantum computation based on GA and applying it to Grover's search algorithm (33);
 Exploration of the benefits of the GA formalism for engineers (34);
 Study of the functions of multivector variables in GA (35); and
 Study of time as a geometric property of the GAbased conception of space (36).
d) Mathematical modelling: Mathematical modelling uses mathematical concepts and language in the description of a system. Our work in mathematical modelling include:
 Work on memristive devices and its applications to circuits and systems simulation is reported in 37, 38, and 39. Memristor, a portmanteau of “memory” and “resistor”, and is a type of passive circuit element that maintains a relationship between the time integrals of current and voltage across a twoterminal element.
 Work on mathematical modelling of COVID19 outbreak in Bahrain (41, 42).
For my author IDs and research impact indicators, please refer to these links:

Appointments
Date Position Institution name 2022  ongoing Senior Lecturer University of Adelaide 2022  ongoing Founder Quantum Interactive Decisions 2020  2022 Associate Professor University of Bahrain 2019  ongoing Senior Associate Game Theory Sage International Australia 2019  ongoing Founder Interactive Decisions 2013  2022 Adjunct Senior Lecturer University of Adelaide 2013  2015 Assistant Professor King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals 2012  2012 Senior Research Associate (ARC grantfunded, Level B) University of Adelaide 2007  2011 Australian Research Council's (ARC) Postdoctoral Research Fellow (Level A) University of Adelaide 2006  2007 Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) Postdoctoral Research Fellow and Visiting Associate Professor Kochi University of Technology 
Language Competencies
Language Competency English Can read, write, speak, understand spoken and peer review Urdu Can read, write, speak, understand spoken and peer review 
Education
Date Institution name Country Title 2002  2006 University of Hull United Kingdom PhD in Applied Mathematics 2002  2006 University of Hull United Kingdom Postgraduate Certificate in Research Training 1992  1995 University of Sheffield United Kingdom BSc (Honours) 
Research Interests

Journals

Book Chapters

Conference Papers
Year Citation 2021 AlSayegh, M. A. K., & Iqbal, A. (2021). The impact of the vaccination and booster shots in containing the COVID19 epidemic in Bahrain: a game theory approach. In Proceedings of the Third International Sustainability and Resilience Conference: Climate Change (SRC 2021) (pp. 16). virtual online: IEEE.
2016 Zhou, S. L., Valchev, D. G., Dinovitser, A., Chappell, J. M., Iqbal, A., Ng, B. W. H., . . . Abbott, D. (2016). Dispersionindependent terahertz classification based on Geometric Algebra for substance detection. In Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz waves (IRMMWTHz), 2016 41st International Conference on Vol. 2016November (pp. 12). online: IEEE.
Scopus12010 Bruza, P., Iqbal, A., & Kitto, K. (2010). The role of nonfactorizability in determining "pseudoclassical" nonseparability. In AAAI Fall Symposium  Technical Report Vol. FS1008 (pp. 2631).
Scopus32010 Bruza, P., Iqbal, A., & Kitto, K. (2010). The role of nonfactorizability in determining ''Pseudoclassical' nonseparability. In Proceedings of Quantum Informatics 2010 (pp. 16). www.aaai.org: AAAI. 2009 Kavehei, O., Kim, Y. S., Iqbal, A., Eshraghian, K., AlSarawi, S., & Abbott, D. (2009). The fourth element: Insights into the Memristor. In Proceedings of ICCCAS 2009 (pp. 921927). USA: IEEE.
Scopus24 WoS262008 Iqbal, A., & Cheon, T. (2008). Constructing multiplayer quantum games from nonfactorizable joint probabilities  art. no. 68020A. In D. Abbott, T. Aste, M. Batchelor, R. Dewar, T. DiMatteo, & T. Guttmann (Eds.), COMPLEX SYSTEMS II Vol. 6802 (pp. A8020). Canberra, AUSTRALIA: SPIEINT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING.
WoS22007 Iqbal, A., & Cheon, T. (2007). Constructing multiplayer quantum games from nonfactorizable joint probabilities. In SPIE Microelectronics, MEMS, and Nanotechnology 2007 Proceedings Vol. 6802 (pp. 19). Sydney: SPIE.
Scopus8 
Conference Items
Year Citation 2017 32nd Annual Meeting and PreConference Programs of the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC 2017): LateBreaking Abstracts (2017). Poster session presented at the meeting of Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer. BMJ.

Internet Publications
Year Citation 2022 Iqbal, A. (2022). An Urdu translation of the Australian National Anthem. 2022 Iqbal, A. (2022). An Urdu translation of the Australian National Anthem. 2019 Iqbal, A., & Abbott, D. (2019). Quantum strategies and evolutionary stability (in Urdu). Eqbal Ahmad Centre for Public Education: https://eacpe.org/. 2019 Iqbal, A., Hoodbhoy, P., & Abbott, D. (2019). Can QuantumMechanical Description of Physical Reality Be Considered Complete? (An Urdu Translation). Eqbal Ahmad Centre for Public Education. 2016 Iqbal, A. (2016). Looking at World Events Through the Prism of Game Theory. SAGE International Australia.
 Faculty of Engineering, Computer & Mathematical Sciences (ECMS) Interdisciplinary Research Grant Scheme 2016 (jointly with Prof Derek Abbott & Dr Virginie Masson) at the University of Adelaide, AU$ 30,000 (20162017)
 Discovery Research Grant DP0771453 and Fellowship (Principal Investigator) from Australian Research Council (ARC) at University of Adelaide, AU$ 247,092 (20072011)
 Research Grant P06330 and Fellowship (Principal Investigator) from Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) at Kochi University of Technology, Japanese Yen 4,958,500 (20062007)
 Fully funded PhD Research Scholarship from the University of Hull, UK, for overseas research students (20022005)
 Fully funded Merit Scholarship from the Government of Pakistan for studying overseas at the University of Sheffield, UK (19921995)
Department of Mathematics, College of Science, University of Bahrain (UoB):
2^{nd} Semester 20202021:
 Fluid Mechanics (Level 3)
 Calculus II (Level 1)
 Calculus & Analytical Geometry II (Level 1)
 Calculus & Analytical Geometry III (Level 2)
1^{st} Semester 20202021:
 Analytical Mechanics (Level 3)
 Methods of Applied Mathematics (Level 3)
 Calculus II (Level 1)
2^{nd} Semester 20192020:
 Calculus II (Level 1)
 Maths for Business Management (Level 1)
 Calculus & Analytic Geometry III (Level 2)
School of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, University of Adelaide:
 Avionic Sensors & Systems Combined (Level 4), 2014 Semester 2: Guest Lecturer
 Communications/Principles of Communication Systems (Combined) (Level 4), 2012 Semester 1: Guest Lecturer
 Communications/Principles of Communication Systems (Combined) (Level 4), 2011 Semester 1: Guest Lecturer
Department of Mathematics & Statistics, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals (KFUPM):
 Methods of Applied Mathematics (Level 3), Jan 2013 to May 2014, taught this course 4 times
 Elements of Differential Equations (Level 2), Jan 2013 to May 2014, taught this course twice
School of Natural Sciences, National University of Sciences & Technology (NUST):
 Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics (Level 4), JulyNov 2006
Riphah International University (RUI):
 Engineering Electromagnetics (Level 2), Sep 2000Sep 2001
Tutoring experience
School of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, University of Adelaide:
 Electronic Circuits (Level 2), 2022 Semester 1
 Electronic Circuits (Level 2), 2018 Semester 1
 Electronic Circuits (Level 2), 2017 Semester 1
 Electronic Circuits (Level 2), 2016 Semester 1
 Electronic Systems (Level 1), 2016 Semester 1
Maths Learning Centre (MLC), University of Adelaide:
 Undergrad Maths courses (Various Levels), 2017 to 2019.

Memberships
Date Role Membership Country 2017  ongoing Member Game Theory Society Netherlands 2017  ongoing Member Australian Mathematical Society Australia 2016  ongoing Member JSPS Alumni Association of Australia Australia 2011  2014 Member Australian Institute of Physics Australia 2006  ongoing Member COSNetComplex Open Systems Research Network Australia 2006  ongoing Member Australian Nanotechnology Network Australia 
Consulting/Advisories
Date Institution Department Organisation Type Country 2019  ongoing Australian Research Council (ARC) National Competitive Grants Program Scientific research Australia 2019  ongoing Interactive Decisions Management Business and professional Australia 2017  ongoing University of Wollongong Exam Office/Student Services Division Australia 2017  ongoing National Science Centre (Narodowe Centrum Nauki  NCN) Scientific research Poland 2015  ongoing University of Sydney Faculty of Engineering & IT Australia
Connect With Me
External Profiles