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Dr Stephen Kidd

Stephen Kidd
Microbiology & Immunology Senior Lecturer
School of Biological Sciences
Faculty of Sciences

Stephen graduated from the University of Queensland (PhD - molecular microbiology) and then undertook postdoctoral work at the University of Birmingham (UK) with Prof Nigel Brown. He moved to the University of Adelaide in 2008 where he works on pathogenic bacteria. He has consistently worked on gene regulation in bacteria.

His current research is focussed on determining the molecular and transcriptional systems bacteria use to survive under prolonged periods of time with stress. What is particularly interesting is that within an anatomical niche and importantly, over time, bacteria generate a diversity of cell types and these enable survival. Identifying and characterising these adaptive cell types is important for understanding chronic and relapsing infectious diseases. His research investigates various pathogenic bacteria. Within different anatomical niches he is interested in numerous stresses the bacteria encounter and these include nutrient stress, changes in pH as well a direct chemical stress (such as oxidative stress) and the stress generated by antibiotics.

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External Profiles

Dr Stephen Kidd

Stephen graduated from the University of Queensland (PhD - molecular microbiology) and then undertook postdoctoral work at the University of Birmingham (UK) with Prof Nigel Brown. He moved to the University of Adelaide in 2008 where he works on pathogenic bacteria. He has consistently worked on gene regulation in bacteria.

His current research is focussed on determining the molecular and transcriptional systems bacteria use to survive under prolonged periods of time with stress. What is particularly interesting is that within an anatomical niche and importantly, over time, bacteria generate a diversity of cell types and these enable survival. Identifying and characterising these adaptive cell types is important for understanding chronic and relapsing infectious diseases. His research investigates various pathogenic bacteria. Within different anatomical niches he is interested in numerous stresses the bacteria encounter and these include nutrient stress, changes in pH as well a direct chemical stress (such as oxidative stress) and the stress generated by antibiotics.

Eligible to supervise Masters and PhD — email supervisor to discuss availability.

Overview

Our focus is to understand chronic and relapsing bacterial infections. We use various traditional microbiological techniques together with modern –omics approaches to determine the molecular systems that bacteria use to survive for prolonged periods of time under physical and chemical stresses. What is particularly interesting is that when infecting an anatomical niche, over a long time period, bacteria generate a diversity of cell types – it is these that enable survival against various antimicrobial processes. 

SCV cells

By creating steady-state growth conditions we can enable the broader bacterial cell types which may have decreased fitness; to be studied – these include biofilm cells, persister cells and Small Colony Variants (SCVs). Identifying and characterising these adaptive cell types is important for understanding chronic and relapsing infectious diseases. Our research investigates various pathogenic bacteria, commensal bacteria that do switch to a virulent type and the combinations of bacteria. 

RESEARCH PROJECTS:                 Model for SCV

Many bacterial species have a capacity to respond to antimicrobial processes and assaults by the production of any number of virulence factors (above; blue circles). Pathology that is due to bacterial infection is generally the result of the interaction between these factors and the host cells. There is also a very clear understanding that within a clonal population of bacterial cells there are a variety of cell types (phenotypic variants). This may include the Small Colony Variants (SCVs – above; pale green circles), persister cells (above; dark green circles) and biofilm cells (above; gold circles).

These cell types are quasi-dormant, they have limited expression of virulence factors and immune mediators and they have low metabolic activity and growth. There are inherently tolerant of antibiotics. They are very hard to clear from the site of infection and are the basis for chronic and relapsing infections.

Compounded with this is that often within the body there are pre-existing bacteria or other co-infecting pathogens. We have projects that study different bacterial species and their transition into an alternative lifestyle: such as Staphylococcus aureusMoraxella catarrhalisHaemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoninae.

We have used continuous culture techniques to follow the development of phenotypically diverse populations (as a mono-culture or within a community of bacterial species) and then to map the transcriptional, molecular and genetic events that define these changes in the population. This includes the transition to a biofilm and the dynamics of a multi-species biofilm. We are also interested in following the molecular genetics of the bacteria and the bacterial population as they adapt to their environment in laboratory scale evolution expierments.

SCV SEM       CURRENT STUDENT PROJECTS:

We have Honours Projects each year within the theme of the molecular microbiology of pathogenic bacteria during their response to stresses. The projects involve traditional microbiology, molecular biology and modern –omics techniques as well as cell biology (using human tissue culture techniques). Projects are designed around both fundamental, training and achievable tasks alongside extended goals. These projects are designed within the context of the current, developing research within the laboratory. The work is essential research, with a focus to combine with the bigger projects and therefore for scientific publications. The exact nature of the work can be discussed and actual projects described in the month or so leading into the start of the Honours year. 

Masters and PhD projects:

We welcome Masters or PhD students and can happily discuss the nature of such projects. 

 

 

Appointments

Date Position Institution name
2018 Deputy Director (Australian Centre for Antimicrobial Resistance Ecology, ACARE) University of Adelaide, Adelaide
2017 Associate Dean (Student Life) University of Adelaide, Adelaide
2013 Senior Lecturer University of Adelaide
2008 - 2012 Lecturer University of Adelaide

Awards and Achievements

Date Type Title Institution Name Country Amount
2012 Award Faculty of Science Early Career Teaching Award University of Adelaide Australia
2009 Fellowship Fellow of the Australian Society for Microbiology ASM Australia

Education

Date Institution name Country Title
2008 University of Queensland, Brisbane Australia Graduate Certificate (Higher Education)
1995 - 1998 University of Queensland Australia PhD

Research Interests

Journals

Year Citation
2018 Yoo, A., Rossi-Fedele, G., Kidd, S., Rogers, A., & Zilm, P. (2018). Association between Extracellular Material and Biofilm Formation in Response to Sodium Hypochlorite by Clinical Isolates of Enterococcus faecalis. Journal of Endodontics, 44(2), 269-273.
DOI Europe PMC1
2018 Yang, D., Wijenayaka, A., Solomon, L., Pederson, S., Findlay, D., Kidd, S., & Atkins, G. (2018). Novel insights into Staphylococcus aureus deep bone infections: the involvement of osteocytes. mBio, 9(2), e00415-18-1-e00415-18-10.
DOI
2017 Zilm, P., Butnejski, V., Rossi-Fedele, G., Kidd, S., Edwards, S., & Vasilev, K. (2017). D-Amino acids reduce Enterococcus faecalis biofilms in vitro and in the presence of antimicrobials used for root canal treatment. PLoS ONE, 12(2), e0170670-1-e0170670-14.
DOI Scopus7 WoS8 Europe PMC4
2017 Bui, L., Conlon, B., & Kidd, S. (2017). Antibiotic tolerance and the alternative lifestyles of Staphylococcus aureus. Essays in Biochemistry, 61(1), 71-79.
DOI Scopus4 WoS4 Europe PMC4
2016 Ou, J., Drilling, A., Cooksley, C., Bassiouni, A., Kidd, S., Psaltis, A., . . . Vreugde, S. (2016). Reduced innate immune response to a Staphylococcus aureus small colony variant compared to its wild-type parent strain. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, 6(DEC), 1-9.
DOI Scopus3 WoS4 Europe PMC3
2016 Jiang, D., Tikhomirova, A., Bent, S., & Kidd, S. (2016). A discrete role for FNR in the transcriptional response to moderate changes in oxygen by Haemophilus influenzae Rd KW20. Research in Microbiology, 167(2), 103-113.
DOI Scopus1 WoS1
2016 Jiang, D., Tikhomirova, A., & Kidd, S. (2016). Haemophilus influenzae strains possess variations in the global transcriptional profile in response to oxygen levels and this influences sensitivity to environmental stresses. Research in Microbiology, 167(1), 13-19.
DOI
2015 Bui, L., & Kidd, S. (2015). A full genomic characterization of the development of a stable Small Colony Variant cell-type by a clinical Staphylococcus aureus strain. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 36, 345-355.
DOI Scopus5 WoS6 Europe PMC3
2015 Bui, L., Turnidge, J., & Kidd, S. (2015). The induction of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation or Small Colony Variants is a strain-specific response to host-generated chemical stresses. Microbes and Infection, 17(1), 77-82.
DOI Scopus12 WoS11 Europe PMC7
2015 Tikhomirova, A., Jiang, D., & Kidd, S. (2015). A new insight into the role of intracellular nickel levels for the stress response, surface properties and twitching motility by Haemophilus influenzae. Metallomics, 7(4), 650-661.
DOI Scopus2 WoS2
2015 Bui, L., Hoffmann, P., Turnidge, J., Zilm, P., & Kidd, S. (2015). Prolonged growth of a clinical Staphylococcus aureus strain selects for a stable small-colony-variant cell type. Infection and Immunity, 83(2), 470-481.
DOI Scopus7 WoS6 Europe PMC6
2015 Tikhomirova, A., Trappetti, C., Paton, J., & Kidd, S. (2015). The outcome of H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae inter-species interactions depends on pH, nutrient availability and growth phase. International Journal of Medical Microbiology, 305(8), 881-892.
DOI Scopus1 WoS2 Europe PMC3
2014 Ishak, N., Tikhomirova, A., Bent, S., Ehrlich, G., Hu, F., & Kidd, S. (2014). There is a specific response to pH by isolates of Haemophilus influenzae and this has a direct influence on biofilm formation. BMC Microbiology, 14(1), 1-10.
DOI Scopus10 WoS8 Europe PMC6
2013 Tikhomirova, A., & Kidd, S. (2013). Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae: living together in a biofilm. Pathogens and Disease, 69(2), 114-126.
DOI Scopus18 WoS17 Europe PMC17
2013 Ng, J., & Kidd, S. (2013). The concentration of intracellular nickel in Haemophilus influenzae is linked to its surface properties and cell-cell aggregation and biofilm formation. International Journal of Medical Microbiology, 303(3), 150-157.
DOI Scopus6 WoS6 Europe PMC5
2012 Kidd, S., Jiang, C., Tikhomirova, A., Jennings, M., & McEwan, A. (2012). A glutathione-based system for defense against carbonyl stress in Haemophilus influenzae. BMC Microbiology, 12(1), 1-6.
DOI Scopus6 WoS6 Europe PMC4
2012 Djoko, K., Franiek, J., Edwards, J., Falsetta, M., Kidd, S., Potter, A., . . . McEwan, A. (2012). Phenotypic characterization of a copA mutant of Neisseria gonorrhoeae identifies a link between copper and nitrosative stress. Infection and Immunity, 80(3), 1065-1071.
DOI Scopus20 Europe PMC16
2011 Kidd, S., Djoko, K., Ng, J., Argente, M., Jennings, M., & McEwan, A. (2011). A novel nickel responsive MerR-like regulator, NimR, from Haemophilus influenzae. Metallomics; integrated biometals science, 3(10), 1009-1018.
DOI Scopus10 WoS9 Europe PMC7
2011 McEwan, A., Djoko, K., Chen, N., Counago, R., Kidd, S., Potter, A., & Jennings, M. (2011). Novel bacterial MerR-like regulators: Their role in the response to carbonyl and nitrosative stress. Advances in Microbial Physiology, 58, 1-22.
DOI Scopus18 WoS17 Europe PMC14
2011 Kidd, S. (2011). Advances in molecular and cellular microbiology: Stress response in pathogenic bacteria. Advances in Molecular and Cellular Microbiology: Stress Response in Pathogenic Bacteria, 1-306.
Scopus2
2010 Wu, H., Seib, K., Srikhanta, Y., Edwards, J., Kidd, S. P., Maguire, T. L., . . . Jennings, M. P. (2010). Manganese regulation of virulence factors and oxidative stress resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Journal of Proteomics, 73(5), 899-916.
DOI
2010 Pidot, S., Porter, J., Tobias, N., Anderson, J., Catmull, D., Seemann, T., . . . Stinear, T. (2010). Regulation of the 18 kDa heat shock protein in Mycobacterium ulcerans: An alpha-crystallin orthologue that promotes biofilm formation. Molecular Microbiology, 78(5), 1216-1231.
DOI Scopus9 WoS10 Europe PMC7
2010 Potter, A., Kidd, S., McEwan, A., & Paton, J. (2010). The MerR/NmlR Family Transcription Factor of Streptococcus pneumoniae responds to carbonyl stress and modulates hydrogen peroxide production. Journal of Bacteriology, 192(15), 4063-4066.
DOI Scopus16 WoS16 Europe PMC10
2009 Potter, A. J., Kidd, S. P., Edwards, J. L., Falsetta, M. L., Apicella, M. A., Jennings, M. P., & McEwan, A. G. (2009). Esterase D is essential for protection of neisseria gonorrhoeae against nitrosative stress and for bacterial growth during interaction with cervical epithelial cells. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 200(2), 273-278.
DOI
2009 Potter, A., Kidd, S., Edwards, J., Falsetta, M., Apicella, M., Jennings, M., & McEwan, A. (2009). Thioredoxin reductase is essential for protection of neisseria gonorrhoeae against killing by nitric oxide and for bacterial growth during interaction with cervical epithelial cells. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 199(2), 227-235.
DOI
2007 Potter, A., Kidd, S., Jennings, M., & McEwan, A. (2007). Evidence for distinctive mechanisms of S-nitrosoglutathione metabolism by AdhC in two closely related species, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis. Infection and Immunity, 75(3), 1534-1536.
DOI
2007 Kidd, S., Jiang, D., Jennings, M., & McEwan, A. (2007). Glutathione-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase AdhC is required for defense against nitrosative stress in Haemophilus influenzae.. Infection and Immunity, 75(9), 4506-4513.
DOI
2007 Stroeher, U., Kidd, S., Stafford, S., Jennings, M., Paton, J., & McEwan, A. (2007). A pneumococcal MerR-like regulator and S-nitrosoglutathione reductase are required for systemic virulence. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 196(12), 1820-1826.
DOI Scopus41 WoS40 Europe PMC28
2006 Wu, H. J., Seib, K., Srikhanta, Y., Kidd, S., Edwards, J., Maguire, T., . . . Jennings, M. (2006). PerR controls Mn-dependent resistance to oxidative stress in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Molecular Microbiology, 60(2), 401-416.
DOI
2006 Seib, K., Wu, H., Kidd, S., Apicella, M., Jennings, M., & McEwan, A. (2006). Defenses against oxidative stress in Neisseria gonorrhoeae: a system tailored for a challenging environment. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, 70(2), 344-361.
DOI
2005 Harrison, R., Jones, A., Biggins, P., Pomeroy, N., Cox, C., Kidd, S., . . . Beswick, A. (2005). Climate factors influencing bacterial count in background air samples. International Journal of Biometeorology, 49(3), 167-178.
DOI
2005 Tree, J., Kidd, S., Jennings, M., & McEwan, A. (2005). Copper sensitivity of cueO mutants of Escherichia coli K-12 and the biochemical suppression of this phenotype. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 328(4), 1205-1210.
DOI
2005 Kidd, S., Potter, A., Apicella, M., Jennings, M., & McEwan, A. (2005). NmlR of Neisseria gonorrhoeae : a novel redox responsive transcription factor from the MerR family. Molecular Microbiology, 57(6), 1676-1689.
DOI
2003 Essa, A., Julian, D., Kidd, S., Brown, N., & Hobman, J. (2003). Mercury resistance determinants related to Tn21, Tn1696, and Tn5053 in enterobacteria from the preantibiotic era. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 47(3), 1115-1119.
DOI
2003 Kidd, S., & Brown, N. (2003). ZccR-a MerR-like regulator from Bordetella pertussis which responds to zinc, cadmium, and cobalt. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 302(4), 697-702.
DOI
2003 Brown, N., Stoyanov, J., Kidd, S., & Hobman, J. (2003). The MerR family of transcriptional regulators. FEMS Microbiology Reviews, 27(2-3), 145-163.
DOI
2002 Kidd, S. P., & Pemberton, J. M. (2002). The identification of the transcriptional regulator CRP in Aeromonas hydrophila JMP636 and its involvement in amylase production and the 'acidic toxicity' effect. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 93(5), 787-793.
DOI
2002 Kidd, S. P., & Pemberton, J. M. (2002). The cloning and characterization of a second α-amylase of A. hydrophila JMP636. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 92(2), 289-296.
DOI
1997 Pemberton, J., Kidd, S., & Schmidt, R. (1997). Secreted enzymes of Aeromonas. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 152(1), 1-10.
DOI

Book Chapters

Year Citation
2016 Kyd, J., Krishnamurthy, A., & Kidd, S. P. (2016). Interactions and Mechanisms of Respiratory Tract Biofilms Involving Streptococcus Pneumoniae and Nontypeable Haemophilus Influenzae. In D. Dhanasekaran, & N. Thajuddin (Eds.), Microbial Biofilms - Importance and Applications (pp. 299-327). InTech.
DOI
2011 Kidd, S. (2011). Novel Regulation in Response to Host-generated Stresses: The MerR Family of Regulators in Pathogenic Bacteria. In Stephen Kidd (Ed.), Stress Response in Pathogenic Bacteria (1 ed., pp. 93-114). United Kingdom: CABI Publishing.
Scopus1

I am Program Co-ordinator for the Bachelor of Science (Biotechnology). 

I am Course Co-ordinator for Microbiology II

I teach into several other course.

I lead a Global Mobility Study tour to South Korea - Seoul-changing Biotechnology.

Current Higher Degree by Research Supervision (University of Adelaide)

Date Role Research Topic Program Degree Type Student Load Student Name
2018 Principal Supervisor Induction of Stable Small Colony Variants in Staphylococcus Aureus Doctor of Philosophy Doctorate Full Time Mr James Lee
2017 Co-Supervisor The role of persistent Lifestyles of Staphylococcus in ureus in bone infections Doctor of Philosophy Doctorate Full Time Mr Nicholas James Gunn
2017 Co-Supervisor Parameters affecting biodigester performance Doctor of Philosophy Doctorate Full Time Mr Mathu Indren
2016 Co-Supervisor Role of Shigelle Flexner Surface Molecules in Pathogenesis Doctor of Philosophy Doctorate Full Time Mr Jilong Qin

Past Higher Degree by Research Supervision (University of Adelaide)

Date Role Research Topic Program Degree Type Student Load Student Name
2015 - 2015 Co-Supervisor Characterisation of the Shigella flexneri O Antigen Polymerase Wzy Doctor of Philosophy Doctorate Full Time Ms Pratiti Nath
2013 - 2015 Co-Supervisor Polarity and Secretion of Shigella flexneri IcsA: A Classical Autotransporter Doctor of Philosophy Doctorate Full Time Mr Matthew Thomas Doyle
2012 - 2016 Principal Supervisor Haemophilus influenzae survival and biofilm formation in a complex physical, chemical and multispecies environment. Doctor of Philosophy Doctorate Full Time Alexandra Tikhomirova
2011 - 2015 Principal Supervisor STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS: STRESS RESPONSE AND ITS ROLES IN PATHOGENESIS Doctor of Philosophy Doctorate Full Time Miss Minh Giao Long Bui
2010 - 2016 Co-Supervisor Proteomic Analysis of Enterococcus faecalis Cell Membrane Proteins under Alkaline Stress Conditions Doctor of Philosophy Doctorate Part Time APrf Peter Cathro
2009 - 2014 Principal Supervisor Coupling Stress Responses and Growth Pathways in Haemophilus influenzae Doctor of Philosophy Doctorate Full Time Mr Changde Donald Jiang

Committee Memberships

Date Role Committee Institution Country
2016 - ongoing Chair South Australian/NT ASM Branch committee Australia
2015 - ongoing Founder StaphPath 2017 conference Australia
2015 - ongoing Member School of Biological Sciences Teaching and Learning Committee University of Adelaide Australia
2015 - ongoing Member Masters of Biotechnology (Biomed. Sciences) Steering Committee University of Adelaide
2012 - ongoing Member South Australian/NT ASM committee ASM Australia

Memberships

Date Role Membership Country
2015 - ongoing Member Australian Society for Antimicrobials Australia
2014 - ongoing Member American Society for Microbiology United States

Editorial Boards

Date Role Editorial Board Name Institution Country
2014 - ongoing Consulting Editor Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology

Offices Held

Date Office Name Institution Country
2016 - ongoing Chair SA/NT branch ASM ASM Australia
Position
Microbiology & Immunology Senior Lecturer
Phone
83135396
Fax
8313 4362
Campus
North Terrace
Building
Molecular Life Sciences, floor 5
Room Number
5 17
Org Unit
Molecular and Cellular Biology

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