Zarka Ramiz

Zarka Ramiz

Higher Degree by Research Candidate

School of Agriculture, Food and Wine

Faculty of Sciences, Engineering and Technology

Brome grass (Bromus diandrus) is a winter annual weed with similar growth habits to wheat. Native to Europe and Mediterranean regions, brome grass is found in southern Australian cropping regions typified by cool, wet winters and hot dry summers. Annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) was originally introduced as a pasture species, and is now one of the most persistent and troublesome weeds in the southern Australian cropping system. These annual weeds typically emerge at the same time as crop seedlings.

Historically, herbicides are an efficient way of controlling crop weeds but their continual use is selecting for weeds survivors, which then dominate the population and become problematic for growers. Surviving weeds may be able to enzymatically detoxify the herbicide, or they may contain an altered herbicide target site that prevents the herbicide from binding, or perhaps another mechanism of resistance is present. Greater weed seed dormancy is also being selected for by long-term use of herbicides, because these weeds physically avoid the herbicide treatment. For this situation, studies on seed germination ecology are valuable.

Weed ecology and germination patterns of problematic weeds have been studied previously. However, none have asked why there is so much variation in germination percentages and emergence patterns, between different populations of the same species, nor how these are controlled at the genetic level. The question of if there are genes responsible for causing germination variation among these populations is yet to be answered. This research will focus on brome grass and ryegrass seed behaviour under conditions of ecological stress, their germination percentages, genetic factors influencing dormancy and differing between early and late germinating weed seeds, and how best to control them.
The study objectives are to:
• Investigate germination percentages and emergence patterns over time for germinating ryegrass and brome grass populations, within different rainfall zones;
• Determine the biochemical basis of dormancy in populations with delayed emergence;
• Identify genes involved in dormancy for brome grass and ryegrass;
• Deduce strategies for more effective control of brome grass and ryegrass when using pre-emergent herbicides.
Knowledge gained from this project will assist with the development of effective integrated weed management (IWM) strategies to slow the rate of resistance evolution and to successfully manage already resistant ryegrass and brome grass populations.



  • Appointments

    Date Position Institution name
    2018 - 2021 PhD student The University of Adelaide
  • Language Competencies

    Language Competency
    Arabic Can read, write, speak and understand spoken
    English Can read, write, speak, understand spoken and peer review
    Panjabi; Punjabi Can read, write, speak and understand spoken
    Urdu Can read, write, speak, understand spoken and peer review
  • Education

    Date Institution name Country Title
    2018 - 2021 University of Adelaide Australia PhD Agriculture
    2013 - 2015 The Islamia Univeristy of Bahawalpur Pakistan Pakistan MSc Honors Agronomy
    2009 - 2013 The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan Pakistan BSc Honors, Agriculture and Environmental Scientist
  • Research Interests

  • Journals

    Year Citation
    2022 Ramiz, Z., Malone, J., Preston, C., & Gill, G. (2022). Genetic control of seed dormancy in Lolium rigidum and its association with GA20ox and ABA1 expression. Crop and Pasture Science, 10 pages.
    2022 Ramiz, Z., Malone, J., Preston, C., & Gill, G. (2022). Selection for seed dormancy within Bromus diandrus populations alters ABA1 and GA20ox gene expression. Crop and Pasture Science, 9 pages.
    2020 Kebaso, L., Frimpong, D., Iqbal, N., Bajwa, A. A., Namubiru, H., Ali, H. H., . . . Chauhan, B. S. (2020). Biology, ecology and management of Raphanus raphanistrum L.: a noxious agricultural and environmental weed. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 27(15), 17692-17705.
    DOI Scopus1 WoS2
    2017 Hanif, Z., Naeem, M., Ali, H. H., Tanveer, A., Javaid, M. M., Peerzada, A. M., & Chauhan, B. S. (2017). Effect of Environmental Factors on Germination of Salsola foetida: Potential Species for Rehabilitation of Degraded Rangelands. RANGELAND ECOLOGY & MANAGEMENT, 70(5), 638-643.
    DOI WoS8
    2017 Rasool, G., Mahajan, G., Yadav, R., Hanif, Z., & Chauhan, B. S. (2017). Row spacing is more important than seeding rate for increasing Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) control and grain yield in soybean (Glycine max). CROP & PASTURE SCIENCE, 68(7), 620-624.
    DOI WoS6
    2017 Ali, H. H., Peerzada, A. M., Hanif, Z., Hashim, S., & Chauhan, B. S. (2017). Weed management using crop competition in Pakistan: A review. CROP PROTECTION, 95, 22-30.
    DOI WoS14
    2017 Peerzada, A. M., Ali, H. H., Hanif, Z., Bajwa, A. A., Kebaso, L., Frimpong, D., . . . Chauhan, B. S. (2017). Eco-biology, impact, and management of Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.. Biological Invasions.
    2017 Bajwa, A. A., Akhter, M. J., Iqbal, N., Peerzada, A. M., Hanif, Z., Manalil, S., . . . Chauhan, B. S. (2017). Biology and management of Avena fatua and Avena ludoviciana: two noxious weed species of agro-ecosystems. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH, 24(24), 19465-19479.
    DOI WoS12 Europe PMC7
    2017 Ramiz, Z., Ali, H., Rasool, G., Tanveer, A., & Chauhan, B. (2017). Genus Salsola: its benefits, uses, environmental perspectives & future aspects - a review. Journal of Rangeland Science, 8(3), 315-328.
    2016 Anum, W., Naeem, M., Tanveer, A., Haider, A., Nazir, Q., Hanif, Z., . . . Kashif, M. (2016). Effect of African purslane (Zaleya pentandra L.) on germination and seedling growth of maize. Allelopathy Journal, 39(1), 83-92.

Commonwealth Government Scholarship for Research and Training Program

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