Dr Scott Penfold
I am a Certified Medical Physics Specialist within the field of Radiation Oncology. I completed my undergraduate studies at the University of Wollongong (UoW) and was awarded the University Medal in the Faculty of Engineering in 2006. I subsequently went on to complete my PhD in a joint project with UoW and Loma Linda University Medical Center in California.
In 2010, during the last year of my PhD, I began clinical medical physics training at the Royal Adelaide Hospital (RAH). In 2013 I sat my final certification exam and joined the ACPSEM register of certified medical physics specialists.
In September 2013, I joined the University of Adelaide (UoA) Department of Physics as a half-time academic, while also retaining half-time employment at the RAH. I am currently working as the postgraduate co-ordinator for Medical Physics at UoA. My roles include undergraduate practical demonstration and lecturing, and postgraduate lecturing and research supervision.
My research interests predominantly lie in proton therapy and quantitative imaging for image guided radiotherapy.
My PhD studies were focussed on image reconstruction algorithms for proton computed tomography (pCT). Proton CT differs from the common X-ray CT scanners by using energetic protons to traverse the body as opposed to kilovoltage X-rays. A measurement of the energy lost by protons as they traverse the body in pCT can be used to reconstruct a stopping power map of a patient. This information is useful in the emerging cancer treatment field of proton therapy.
Proton therapy is a highly conformal method of delivering therapeutic doses of radiation to treat cancer. Proton therapy has the advantage over the more common X-ray therapy that protons have a finite range in matter. Therefore, a beam of energetic protons can be directed at the cancer site, minimizing the dose to the surrounding healthy tissue. To be able to stop the proton beam at precisely the right location, an accurate map of proton stopping powers is required. This is the primary purpose of pCT.
The image reconstruction challenge in pCT stems from the fact that protons, as charged particles, interact with the electric fields of atomic electrons and nuclei in the patient tissues and undergo multiple scattering. Most image reconstruction algorithms assume the radiation travelled in a straight line between source and detector and when using this assumption in pCT, poor spatial resolution of the reconstructed image results. Special techniques are required to accurately account for the scattering of the protons in the patient.
In general, my research interests are focussed around proton therapy, including pCT and intensity modulated proton therapy optimization algorithms. I am also working to develop a toolkit that will provide clinicians with an estimate of the quality of life a patient can expext from multiple potential treatment options. This is of primary interest in proton therapy where the cose of treatment is significantly larger than X-ray therapy.
|2013||Lecturer and Medical Physics Program Coordinator||University of Adelaide|
|2010||Medical Physics Specialist||Royal Adelaide Hospital|
|2009 - 2009||Award||Cancer Institute NSW Research Scholars Award||Cancer Institute NSW||25,000|
|2006||Award||University Medal (Faculty of Engineering)||University of Wollongong|
|2003 - 2006||University of Wollongong||Australia||B Medical Radiation Physics (1st Class Honours)|
|University of Wollongong||Australia||PhD|
|2013||Certified Medical Physics Specialist (Radiation Oncology)||Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine|
|2017||Zhu, J. & Penfold, S. (2017). Europium-155 as a source for dual energy cone beam computed tomography in adaptive proton therapy: A simulation study. Medical Physics, 1-10.
|2016||Zhu, J. & Penfold, S. (2016). Review of 3D image data calibration for heterogeneity correction in proton therapy treatment planning. Australasian Physical and Engineering Sciences in Medicine, 39, 2, 379-390.
|2016||Poignant, F., Penfold, S., Asp, J. & Takhar, P. (2016). GEANT4 simulation of cyclotron radioisotope production in a solid target. Physica Medica, 32, 5, 728-734.
|2016||Zhu, J. & Penfold, S. (2016). Dosimetric comparison of stopping power calibration with dual-energy CT and single-energy CT in proton therapy treatment planning. Medical Physics, 43, 6, 2845-2854.
|2015||Penfold, S. & Censor, Y. (2015). Techniques in Iterative Proton CT Image Reconstruction. Sensing and Imaging, 16, 1, -.
|2014||Penfold, S., Brown, M., Staudacher, A. & Bezak, E. (2014). Monte Carlo simulations of dose distributions with necrotic tumor targeted radioimmunotherapy. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 90, 40-45.
|2013||Douglass, M., Bezak, E. & Penfold, S. (2013). Monte Carlo investigation of the increased radiation deposition due to gold nanoparticles using kilovoltage and megavoltage photons in a 3D randomized cell model. Medical Physics, 40, 7, 1-9.
|2012||Penfold, S., Marcu, L., Lawson, J. & Asp, J. (2012). Evaluation of physician eye lens doses during permanent seed implant brachytherapy for prostate cancer. Journal of Radiological Protection, 32, 3, 339-347.
|2012||Schulte, R. & Penfold, S. (2012). Proton CT for improved stopping power determination in proton therapy. Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, 106, 55-58.|
|2012||Douglass, M., Bezak, E. & Penfold, S. (2012). Development of a randomized 3D cell model for Monte Carlo microdosimetry simulations. Medical Physics, 39, 6, 3509-3519.
|2011||Penfold, S., Rosenfeld, A., Schulte, R. & Sadrozinski, H. (2011). Geometrical optimazation of a particle tracking system for proton computed tomography. Radiation Measurements, 46, 12, 2069-2072.
|2010||Penfold, S., Schulte, R., Censor, Y. & Rosenfeld, A. (2010). Total variation superiorization schemes in proton computed tomography image reconstruction. Medical Physics, 37, 11, 5887-5895.
|2009||Penfold, S., Rosenfeld, A., Schulte, R. & Schubert, K. (2009). A more accurate reconstruction system matrix for quantitative proton computed tomography. Medical Physics, 36, 10, 4511-4518.
|2008||Schulte, R., Penfold, S., Tafas, J. & Schubert, K. (2008). A maximum likelihood proton path formalism for application in proton computed tomography. Medical Physics, 35, 11, 4849-4856.
|2010||Penfold, S., Schulte, R., Censor, Y., Bashkirov, V., McAllister, S., Schubert, K. & Rosenfeld, A. (2010). Block-iterative and string-averaging projection algorithms in proton computed tomography image reconstruction. In Y. Censor, M. Jiang & G. Wang (Eds.), Biomedical mathematics: promising directions in imaging, therapy planning, and inverse problems (pp. 347-368). USA: Medical Physics Publishing.|
|2009||Bashkirov, V., Schulte, R., Coutrakon, G., Erdelyi, B., Wong, K., Sadrozinski, H. ... Schubert, K. (2009). Development of proton computed tomography for applications in proton therapy. International Conference on the Application of Accelerators in Research and Industry. Fort Worth Texas.|
|2009||Wong, K., Erdelyi, B., Schulte, R., Bashkirov, V., Coutrakon, G., Sadrozinski, H. ... Rosenfeld, A. (2009). The effect of tissue inhomogeneities on the accuracy of proton path reconstruction for proton computed tomography. International Conference on the Application of Accelerators in Research and Industry. Fort worth Texas.|
|2009||Penfold, S., Rosenfeld, A., Schulte, R. & Sadrozinski, H. (2009). Fast and accurate proton computed tomography image reconstruction for applications in proton therapy. World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering (WC). Munich, Germany.
|2014||Douglass, M. J.; (2014); Development of an Integrated Stochastic Radiobiological Model for Electromagnetic Particle Interactions in a 4D Cellular Geometry;|