Candice Oster

Candice Oster

School of Psychology

Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences


Dr Candice Oster is a lecturer and researcher with an interest in qualitative research in the areas of health and wellbeing. She is a Research Associate and lecturer in Chronic Condition Management in the Discipline of Behavioural Health, College of Medicine and Public Health, Flinders University, and an Adjunct Senior Fellow in the School of Psychology, University of Adelaide. Dr Oster has worked as an independent research consultant for universities, hospitals, and research organisations since 2005.

  • Journals

    Year Citation
    2022 Dawson, S., Oster, C., Scanlan, J., Kernot, J., Ayling, B., Pelichowski, K., & Beamish, A. (2022). A realist evaluation of weighted modalities as an alternative to pro re nata medication for mental health inpatients. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 31(3), 553-566.
    DOI
    2022 Oster, C., Gransbury, B., Anderson, D., Martin, V., Skuza, P., & Leibbrandt, R. (2022). Development and validation of a self-report social determinants of health questionnaire in Australia. HEALTH PROMOTION INTERNATIONAL, 11 pages.
    DOI WoS1
    2022 Oster, C., Leibbrandt, R., Schoo, A., Lange, B., Litt, J., Morello, A., . . . Lawn, S. (2022). A feasibility study of teaching motivational interviewing in a fully online environment using a virtual client. International Journal of Health Promotion and Education, 1-12.
    DOI
    2021 Riley, B. J., Oster, C., Rahamathulla, M., & Lawn, S. (2021). Attitudes, risk factors, and behaviours of gambling among adolescents and young people: A literature review and gap analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(3), 1-14.
    DOI Scopus3 Europe PMC1
    2021 Muir-Cochrane, E., & Oster, C. (2021). Chemical restraint: A qualitative synthesis review of adult service user and staff experiences in mental health settings. Nursing and Health Sciences, 23(2), 325-336.
    DOI Scopus1 WoS1
    2021 Muir-Cochrane, E., Muller, A., & Oster, C. (2021). Absconding: A qualitative perspective of patients leaving inpatient psychiatric care. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 30(5), 1127-1135.
    DOI
    2021 Hocking, J., Oster, C., & Maeder, A. (2021). Use of conversational agents in rehabilitation following brain injury, disease, or stroke: A scoping review protocol. JBI Evidence Synthesis, 19(6), 1369-1381.
    DOI Scopus1 Europe PMC1
    2021 Oster, C., Skelton, C., Venning, A., Fairweather, K., & Redpath, P. (2021). A pathway through the uncanny: A phenomenological photovoice study of Australian university students’ experiences of physical activity during COVID-19. Health and Social Care in the Community, 30(5), 12 pages.
    DOI Scopus1 WoS1
    2021 Muir-Cochrane, E., Grimmer, K., Gerace, A., Bastiampillai, T., & Oster, C. (2021). Safety and effectiveness of olanzapine and droperidol for chemical restraint for non-consenting adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Australasian Emergency Care, 24(2), 96-111.
    DOI Scopus1
    2020 Muir-Cochrane, E., Oster, C., & Grimmer, K. (2020). International research into 22 years of use of chemical restraint: An evidence overview. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, 26(3), 927-956.
    DOI Scopus6 WoS7
    2020 Van Antwerpen, N. R., & Oster, C. (2020). Postmodern thought and the self: An interpretative phenomenological analysis. Human Studies, 43(1), 107-127.
    DOI
    2020 Muir-Cochrane, E., Grimmer, K., Gerace, A., Bastiampillai, T., & Oster, C. (2020). Prevalence of the use of chemical restraint in the management of challenging behaviours associated with adult mental health conditions: A meta-synthesis. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 27(4), 425-445.
    DOI Scopus4 WoS5 Europe PMC1
    2020 Lawn, S., Oster, C., Riley, B., Smith, D., Baigent, M., & Rahamathulla, M. (2020). A literature review and gap analysis of emerging technologies and new trends in gambling. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(3), 1-20.
    DOI Scopus21 Europe PMC7
    2020 Oster, C., Schoo, A., Litt, J., Morello, A., Leibbrandt, R., Antonello, C., . . . Lawn, S. (2020). Supporting workforce practice change: Protocol for a pilot study of a motivational interviewing virtual client software tool for health professionals. BMJ Open, 10(2), 8 pages.
    DOI Scopus1 WoS1
    2020 Muir-Cochrane, E., Oster, C., & Grimmer, K. (2020). Interrogating systematic review recommendations for effective chemical restraint. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, 26(6), 1768-1779.
    DOI Scopus2 WoS1
    2020 Muir-Cochrane, E., Muller, A., Fu, Y., & Oster, C. (2020). Role of security guards in Code Black events in medical and surgical settings: A retrospective chart audit. Nursing and Health Sciences, 22(3), 758-768.
    DOI
    2020 Gill, I., Oster, C., & Lawn, S. (2020). Assessing competence in health professionals’ use of motivational interviewing: A systematic review of training and supervision tools. Patient Education and Counseling, 103(3), 473-483.
    DOI Scopus9 WoS8 Europe PMC2
    2020 Muir-Cochrane, E., Oster, C., Gerace, A., Dawson, S., Damarell, R., & Grimmer, K. (2020). The effectiveness of chemical restraint in managing acute agitation and aggression: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.. International journal of mental health nursing, 29(2), 110-126.
    DOI Scopus11 WoS10 Europe PMC3
    2020 Hidayat, M. T., Lawn, S., Muir-Cochrane, E., & Oster, C. (2020). The use of pasung for people with mental illness: a systematic review and narrative synthesis. International Journal of Mental Health Systems, 14(1).
    DOI Scopus4
    2019 Quiniones, C., & Oster, C. (2019). Embracing or resisting masculinity: male participation in the pro-eating disorders (pro-ana) online community. Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 20(3), 368-378.
    DOI Scopus3 WoS3
    2019 Muir-Cochrane, E., Lawn, S., Coveney, J., Zabeen, S., Kortman, B., & Oster, C. (2019). Recovery college as a transition space in the journey towards recovery: An Australian qualitative study. Nursing and Health Sciences, 21(4), 523-530.
    DOI Scopus5 WoS5 Europe PMC1
    2019 Bull, J., Oster, C., Flight, I., Wilson, C., Koczwara, B., Watson, D. I., & Bright, T. (2019). The role of rehabilitation in patients undergoing oesophagectomy for cancer and pre-malignant disease: A qualitative exploration of the views of patients, carers and healthcare providers. European Journal of Cancer Care, 28(2), 9 pages.
    DOI Scopus4 WoS5 Europe PMC2
    2019 Hu, F., Muir-Cochrane, E., Oster, C., & Gerace, A. (2019). An examination of the incidence and nature of chemical restraint on adult acute psychiatric inpatient units in Adelaide, South Australia. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 28(4), 909-921.
    DOI Scopus8 WoS8
    2019 Hill, J., Gerace, A., Oster, C., & Ullah, S. (2019). Resuscitation status in psychogeriatric and general medical inpatients aged 65 years and older: a retrospective comparison study. Australian Health Review, 43(4), 432-440.
    DOI
    2019 Oster, C., Lawn, S., & Waddell, E. (2019). Delivering services to the families of Veterans of current conflicts: a rapid review of outcomes for Veterans. Journal of Military, Veteran and Family Health, 5(2), 159-175.
    DOI
    2018 Day, A., Gerace, A., Oster, C., O’Kane, D., & Casey, S. (2018). The Views of Women in Prison about Help-Seeking for Intimate Partner Violence: At the Intersection of Survivor and Offender. Victims and Offenders, 13(7), 974-994.
    DOI Scopus3 WoS2
    2018 Muir-Cochrane, E., O'Kane, D., & Oster, C. (2018). Fear and blame in mental health nurses’ accounts of restrictive practices: Implications for the elimination of seclusion and restraint. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 27(5), 1511-1521.
    DOI Scopus44 WoS45 Europe PMC8
    2018 Simpson, A., Oster, C., & Muir-Cochrane, E. (2018). Liminality in the occupational identity of mental health peer support workers: A qualitative study. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 27(2), 662-671.
    DOI Scopus28 WoS25 Europe PMC6
    2018 Moore, E., Lawn, S., & Oster, C. (2018). Self-management programs for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples with chronic conditions: a rapid review. Chronic Illness, 15(2), 83-123.
    DOI
    2018 Munro, V., Morello, A., Oster, C., Redmond, C., Vnuk, A., Lennon, S., & Lawn, S. (2018). E-learning for self-management support: Introducing blended learning for graduate students - A cohort study 13 Education 1303 Specialist Studies in Education 11 Medical and Health Sciences 1117 Public Health and Health Services. BMC Medical Education, 18(1), 8 pages.
    DOI Scopus16 WoS16 Europe PMC9
    2018 Gerace, A., Oster, C., O'Kane, D., Hayman, C. L., & Muir-Cochrane, E. (2018). Empathic processes during nurse-consumer conflict situations in psychiatric inpatient units: A qualitative study. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 27(1), 92-105.
    DOI Scopus43 WoS40 Europe PMC14
    2018 Henderson, J., Dawson, S., Fuller, J., O'Kane, D., Gerace, A., Oster, C., & Cochrane, E. M. (2018). Regional responses to the challenge of delivering integrated care to older people with mental health problems in rural Australia. AGING & MENTAL HEALTH, 22(8), 1025-1031.
    DOI Scopus12 WoS12 Europe PMC4
    2017 Oster, C., Morello, A., Venning, A., & Lawn, S. (2017). The health and wellbeing needs of veterans: A rapid review. BMC Psychiatry, 17(1), 14 pages.
    DOI Scopus35 WoS36 Europe PMC7
    2016 Oster, C., Gerace, A., Thomson, D., & Muir-Cochrane, E. (2016). Seclusion and restraint use in adult inpatient mental health care: An Australian perspective. Collegian, 23(2), 183-190.
    DOI Scopus16 WoS16
    2016 Oster, C., Henderson, J., Lawn, S., Reed, R., Dawson, S., Muir-Cochrane, E., & Fuller, J. (2016). Fragmentation in Australian Commonwealth and South Australian State policy on mental health and older people: A governmentality analysis. HEALTH, 20(6), 541-558.
    DOI Scopus7 WoS6 Europe PMC3
    2015 Fuller, J., Oster, C., Muir-Cochrane, E., Dawson, S., Lawn, S., Henderson, J., . . . Reed, R. (2015). Testing a model of facilitated reflection on network feedback: a mixed method study on integration of rural mental health care services for older people. BMJ Open, 5(11), e008593-1-e008593-11.
    DOI Scopus4 WoS8 Europe PMC1
    2015 Grotto, J., Gerace, A., O'Kane, D., Simpson, A., Oster, C., & Muir-Cochrane, E. (2015). Risk assessment and absconding: Perceptions, understandings and responses of mental health nurses. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 24, 855-865.
    2015 Gerace, A., Oster, C., Mosel, K., O'Kane, D., Ash, D., & Muir-Cochrane, E. (2015). Five-year review of absconding in three acute psychiatric inpatient wards in Australia. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 24(1), 28-37.
    DOI Scopus20 WoS19 Europe PMC9
    2015 Grotto, J., Gerace, A., O'Kane, D., Simpson, A., Oster, C., & Muir-Cochrane, E. (2015). Risk assessment and absconding: Perceptions, understandings and responses of mental health nurses. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 24(5-6), 855-865.
    DOI Scopus14 WoS13 Europe PMC4
    2014 Gerace, A., Pamungkas, D. R., Oster, C., Thomson, D., & Muir-Cochrane, E. (2014). The use of restraint in four general hospital emergency departments in Australia. Australasian Psychiatry, 22(4), 366-369.
    DOI Scopus20 WoS21 Europe PMC12
    2014 Oster, C., McGuiness, C., Duncan, A., & Turnbull, D. (2014). Masculinity and men's participation in colorectal cancer screening. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 16(3), 254-263.
    DOI Scopus8 WoS8
    2014 Muir-Cochrane, E., Oster, C., & Gerace, A. (2014). The Use of Restrictive Measures in an Acute Inpatient Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 28(6), 389-391.
    DOI Scopus10 WoS10 Europe PMC5
    2014 Fuller, J., Oster, C., Dawson, S., O'Kane, D., Lawn, S., Henderson, J., . . . Cochrane, E. M. (2014). Improving the network management of integrated primary mental healthcare for older people in a rural Australian region: Protocol for a mixed methods case study. BMJ Open, 4(9), 8 pages.
    DOI Scopus3 WoS5 Europe PMC3
    2014 Muir-Cochrane, E., O'Kane, D., Barkway, P., Oster, C., & Fuller, J. (2014). Service provision for older people with mental health problems in a rural area of Australia. Aging and Mental Health, 18(6), 759-766.
    DOI Scopus23 WoS22 Europe PMC10
    2013 Gerace, A., Mosel, K., Oster, C., & Muir-Cochrane, E. (2013). Restraint use in acute and extended mental health services for older persons. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 22(6), 545-557.
    DOI Scopus11 WoS13 Europe PMC7
    2013 Muir-Cochrane, E., Oster, C., Grotto, J., Gerace, A., & Jones, J. (2013). The inpatient psychiatric unit as both a safe and unsafe place: Implications for absconding. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 22(4), 304-312.
    DOI Scopus53 WoS48 Europe PMC30
    2013 Oster, C., Zajac, I., Flight, I., Hart, E., Young, G., Wilson, C., & Turnbull, D. (2013). Ambivalence and its influence on participation in screening for colorectal cancer. Qualitative Health Research, 23(9), 1188-1201.
    DOI Scopus12 WoS13 Europe PMC7
    2013 Turnbull, D., Adelson, P., Oster, C., Coffey, J., Coomblas, J., Bryce, R., & Wilkinson, C. (2013). The impact of outpatient priming for induction of labour on midwives' work demand, work autonomy and satisfaction. Women and Birth, 26(3), 207-212.
    DOI Scopus11 WoS11 Europe PMC8
    2013 Turnbull, D., Adelson, P., Oster, C., Bryce, R., Fereday, J., & Wilkinson, C. (2013). Psychosocial outcomes of a randomized controlled trial of outpatient cervical priming for induction of labor. Birth-issues in Perinatal Care, 40(2), 75-80.
    DOI Scopus33 WoS26 Europe PMC12
    2012 Turnbull, D., Oster, C., Flight, I., Zajac, I., & Wilson, C. (2012). A QUALITATIVE EXPLORATION OF THE DECISION TO SCREEN FOR COLORECTAL CANCER BY FOBT. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE, 19, S99.
    2012 Barkway, P., Mosel, K., Simpson, A., Oster, C., & Muir-Cochrane, E. (2012). Consumer and carer consultants in mental health: The formation of their role identity. Advances in Mental Health, 10(2), 157-168.
    DOI Scopus5
    2011 Muir-Cochrane, E., Gerace, A., Mosel, K., O'Kane, D., Barkway, P., Curren, D., & Oster, C. (2011). Managing risk: Clinical decision-making in mental health services. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 32(12), 726-734.
    DOI Scopus19 Europe PMC12
    2011 Ferreday, J., Kimpton, L., & Oster, C. (2011). Parents’ experiences of managing their child’s incontinence at school. Australian and New Zealand Continence Journal, 17(2), 51-56.
    2011 Jurgens, H., Oster, C., & Fereday, J. (2011). Management of chronic functional constipation in children: A review of the literature. Neonatal, Paediatric and Child Health Nursing, 14(2), 23-28.
    Scopus2
    2011 Oster, C., Adelson, P., Wilkinson, C., & Turnbull, D. (2011). Inpatient versus outpatient cervical priming for induction of labour: Therapeutic landscapes and women's preferences. Health & Place, 17(1), 379-385.
    DOI Scopus36 WoS30 Europe PMC9
    2010 Fereday, J., Oster, C., & Darbyshire, P. (2010). Partnership in practice: what parents of a disabled child want from a generic health professional in Australia. Health & Social Care in the Community, 18(6), 624-632.
    DOI Scopus28 WoS24 Europe PMC12
    2010 Wiese, M., & Oster, C. (2010). 'Becoming accepted': The complementary and alternative medicine practitioners' response to the uptake and practice of traditional medicine therapies by the mainstream health sector. Health, 14(4), 415-433.
    DOI Scopus23 WoS17 Europe PMC11
    2010 Wiese, M., Oster, C., & Pincombe, J. (2010). Understanding the emerging relationship between complementary medicine and mainstream health care: A review of the literature. Health, 14(3), 326-342.
    DOI Scopus57 WoS50 Europe PMC31
    2010 Collins, C., Fereday, J., Pincombe, J., Oster, C., & Turnbull, D. (2010). An evaluation of the satisfaction of midwives' working in midwifery group practice. Midwifery, 26(4), 435-441.
    DOI Scopus61 WoS54 Europe PMC23
    2010 Andrews, J., Oster, C., Grafton, R., Hetzel, D., & Lawrence, M. (2010). A necessary evil: patients' experiences of and attitudes to surgical care for Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY, 25, A87.
    2010 Muir-Cochrane, E., Oster, C., Drummond, A., Fereday, J., & Darbyshire, P. (2010). Postcards from the edge: Collaborating with young homeless people to develop targeted mental health messages and translatez research into practice. Advances in Mental Health, 9(2), 138-147.
    DOI Scopus3
    2010 Fereday, J., Oster, C., & Darbyshire, P. (2010). Partnership in practice: What parents of a disabled child want from a generic health professional. Health and Social Care in the Community, 18(6), 624-632.
    2010 Fereday, J., & Oster, C. (2010). Managing a work-life balance: The experiences of midwives working in a group practice setting. Midwifery, 26(3), 311-318.
    DOI Scopus43 WoS38 Europe PMC13
    2009 Fereday, J., Collins, C., Turnbull, D., Pincombe, J., & Oster, C. (2009). An evaluation of Midwifery Group Practice. Part II: Women's satisfaction. Women and Birth, 22(1), 11-16.
    DOI Scopus29 Europe PMC17
    2008 Potter, E., & Oster, C. (2008). Communicating climate change: Public responsiveness and matters of concern. Media International Australia, 127(127), 116-126.
    DOI Scopus17 WoS16
    2008 Oster, C., & Cheek, J. (2008). Governing the contagious body: Genital herpes, contagion and technologies of the self. Health, 12(2), 215-232.
    DOI Scopus11 WoS13 Europe PMC6
    2006 Oster, C., & Starr, P. (2006). Annotated Bibliography - Culture and Climate Change. Altitude : An e-Journal of Emerging Humanities Work, 7.
    2006 Darbyshire, P., Oster, C., & Henning, P. (2006). Children's and young people's experiences of chronic renal disease: A review of the literature, methodological commentary and an alternative proposal. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 15(6), 751-760.
    DOI Scopus10 WoS12 Europe PMC8
    2003 Oster, C. (2003). Harm minimisation as technologies of the self: Some experiences of interviewing people with genital herpes. Nursing Inquiry, 10(3), 201-203.
    DOI Scopus1 Europe PMC1
    2001 Darbyshire, P., Oster, C., & Carrig, H. (2001). The effect of parental problem gambling on children: a review of the literature. Health and Social Care in the Community, 9(4), 185-193.
    2001 Darbyshire, P., Oster, C., & Carrig, H. (2001). The Experience of Pervasive Loss: Children and Young People Living in a Family Where Parental Gambling Is a Problem. Journal of Gambling Studies, 17(1), 23-45.
    DOI Scopus77 Europe PMC19
    2001 Darbyshire, P., Oster, C., & Carrig, H. (2001). Children of parent(s) who have a gambling problem: A review of the literature and commentary on research approaches. Health and Social Care in the Community, 9(4), 185-193.
    DOI Scopus30 WoS23 Europe PMC16
  • Conference Papers

    Year Citation
    2018 O'Kane, D., Day, A., Gerace, A., Oster, C., & Casey, S. (2018). Anticipating the needs of justice-involved women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). In INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MENTAL HEALTH NURSING Vol. 27 (pp. 36). WILEY.
    2016 Turnbull, D. A., Oster, C., Flight, I., Zajac, I., & Wilson, C. (2016). Perceptions of an Internet-based personalised decision support tool for colorectal cancer screening: An exploration of why tailored information did not result in increased screening uptake. In INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY Vol. 51 (pp. 227-228). ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD.
    2016 Bull, J., Oster, C., Flight, I., Wilson, C., Koczwara, B., Watson, D., & Bright, T. (2016). PATIENTS' AND CARERS' PREFERENCES REGARDING THE ROLE OF REHABILITATION FOLLOWING ESOPHAGECTOMY: A QUALITATIVE STUDY. In ASIA-PACIFIC JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY Vol. 12 (pp. 150). WILEY-BLACKWELL.
    2015 Fuller, J., Dawson, S., Muir-Cochrane, E., Oster, C., Henderson, J., O'Kane, D., . . . Reed, R. (2015). Together for the Mental health of Older People (TMOP): a case study of facilitated reflection to problem solve networked older people's mental health services in rural South Australia. In International Conference on Community Health Nursing Research. Seoul, Korea.
    2015 Fuller, J., Dawson, S., Oster, C., Muir-Cochrane, E., Henderson, J., O'Kane, D., . . . Reed, R. (2015). Together for the Mental health of Older People (TMOP): a case study of network problem solving for the management of older people's mental health services in rural South Australia using facilitated reflection. In Conference handbook. Adelaide.
    2015 Fuller, J., Oster, C., Dawson, S., Lawn, S., Reed, R., & Muir-Cochrane, E. (2015). How can we manage primary care networks: Mixed methods case study in rural community mental health care for older people. In Conference handbook. Cancun, North America.
    2015 Fuller, J., Oster, C., Dawson, S., Muir-Cochrane, E., Lawn, S., McPhail, R., . . . Reed, R. (2015). How we manage primary care networks: Think networks; use network data. In Conference handbook. Melbourne.
    2014 Dawson, S., Oster, C., O'Kane, D., Muir-Cochrane, E., Lawn, S., Henderson, J., . . . Fuller, J. (2014). Older persons' mental health in rural Australia: Testing a model for integration. In International Journal of Integrated Care. Sydney: Utrecht University, Maastricht University, Groningen University.
    2014 Dawson, S. K., Oster, C., O'Kane, D., Muir-Cochrane, E., Lawn, S., Henderson, J., . . . Fuller, J. (2014). Older persons mental health in rural Australia: testing a model for integration. In INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INTEGRATED CARE Vol. 14 (pp. 2 pages). UBIQUITY PRESS LTD.
    2014 Gerace, A., Oster, C., Mosel, K., O'Kane, D., Ash, D., & Muir-Cochrane, E. (2014). Absconding from acute inpatient care: A five-year retrospective analysis. In INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MENTAL HEALTH NURSING Vol. 23 (pp. 12). WILEY-BLACKWELL.
  • Conference Items

    Year Citation
    2010 Andrews, J., Oster, C., Grafton, R., Hetzel, D., & Lawrence, M. (2010). The importance of patient perception of personalised care in the provision of specialist care for patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). Poster session presented at the meeting of JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY. WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC.
    2010 Andrews, J., Oster, C., Grafton, R., Hetzel, D., & Lawrence, M. (2010). Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) patients' assessment and regulation of their diet in relation to symptom recurrence. Poster session presented at the meeting of JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY. WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC.

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