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Dr Azhar Iqbal

Azhar Iqbal
Adjunct Senior Lecturer
School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Faculty of Engineering, Computer and Mathematical Sciences

ORCID: 0000-0002-5221-9384.
I graduated with a BSc (Hons) in Physics from the University of Sheffield, UK, in 1995 and worked for several years in the area of Photonics at the Pakistan Institute of Lasers and Optics, before receiving a PhD in Applied Mathematics from the University of Hull, UK, in 2006. In 2006 I was with the National University of Sciences & Technology (NUST), Pakistan. During 2006-2007 I was with the Kochi University of Technology, Japan, on a postdoctoral research fellowship from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS). During 2007-2011 I was with the University of Adelaide on a postdoctoral research fellowship from the Australian Research Council (ARC) and in 2012 as a senior research associate. From early 2013 I was with the King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals (KFUPM), Saudi Arabia, as an academic and returned to the University of Adelaide in mid-2014. My Erdos Number is 4.

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Dr Azhar Iqbal

ORCID: 0000-0002-5221-9384.
I graduated with a BSc (Hons) in Physics from the University of Sheffield, UK, in 1995 and worked for several years in the area of Photonics at the Pakistan Institute of Lasers and Optics, before receiving a PhD in Applied Mathematics from the University of Hull, UK, in 2006. In 2006 I was with the National University of Sciences & Technology (NUST), Pakistan. During 2006-2007 I was with the Kochi University of Technology, Japan, on a postdoctoral research fellowship from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS). During 2007-2011 I was with the University of Adelaide on a postdoctoral research fellowship from the Australian Research Council (ARC) and in 2012 as a senior research associate. From early 2013 I was with the King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals (KFUPM), Saudi Arabia, as an academic and returned to the University of Adelaide in mid-2014. My Erdos Number is 4.

ORCID: 0000-0002-5221-9384.

Introduction and Focus: My core research expertise is in quantum game theory that extends the established branch of mathematics called game theory towards the quantum domain. This research area came into existence in 1999 building on the research field of quantum information/computation. It studies the strategic interaction among rational agents who also share the two quantum information resources: (i) quantum superposition and (ii) entanglement.

A quantum game is the strategic manoeuvring of a quantum system by agents and involves unitary transformations and quantum measurement. Agents’ utilities are functions of their strategic actions (strategies) and are obtained from the outcomes of measurements performed on the quantum system. In 1999 it was observed that quantum algorithm for an oracle problem can be understood as a quantum strategy for a player in a two-player zero-sum game in which the other player is constrained to play classically. The list of known quantum algorithms is small and this observation led to the exploration of game theory for improving the understanding of the working of quantum algorithms. Quantum game theory analyses strategic interaction in the presence of quantum entanglement as game theory is added to the set of existing mathematical tools in the continuing efforts to develop further quantum algorithms.

Quantum game theory: In this core area of my research expertise, l have made the following contributions:

  1. Evolutionary stability in the quantum regime: Introduced in the 1970s by mathematical biologists, the game theoretical notion of an Evolutionarily Stable Strategy (ESS) models an evolving population under evolutionary pressures. Being a refinement notion on the set of Nash equilibria, the ESS concept is the central stability solution concept of evolutionary game theory. My work determined how an ESS becomes susceptible when the interactions among agents (players) of a population, under evolutionary pressures, become quantum-mechanical. The work showed that the quantum entanglement is relevant not only for Nash equilibrium but also for its refinements. A view of this work appeared in the book chapter in the book Quantum Aspects of Life, Imperial College Press, 2008 (pp. 251–288).
  2. Entanglement determining the game-theoretic outcomes: The area of quantum games was pioneered by work showing how sharing quantum entanglement results in the emergence of non-classical Nash equilibria. This motivated my work analysing the fate of other game-theoretic solution-concepts when players have access to quantum entanglement, including “Social Optimality” (Physica A: Stat. Mech. Applic. 436:798–805, 2015), “Value of Coalition” (Phys. Lett. A 293(3-4): 103-108, 2002), “Backwards-induction outcome” (Phys. Rev. A. 65(5): 052328, 2002) and “Sub-game Perfect Outcome” (Phys. Lett. A, 300(6): 541–546, 2002).
  3. Introducing Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) setting for quantum games: In order to identify the truly quantum content of quantum games, l developed an EPR setting for enacting quantum games (J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 37(22): 5873-5885, 2004) as part of my PhD thesis at the University of Hull, UK.
  4. Quantum games from non-factorizable joint probabilities: As part of my postdoctoral work during a prestigious research fellowship from Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, and while working under Prof Taksu Cheon at the Kochi University of Technology, Japan, I developed a new approach in constructing quantum games from the concept of non-factorizable joint probabilities (Physical Review E 76(6): 061122, 2007). A follow up of this work appeared in a number of other publications, including the joint work with Dr James M. Chappell (Physics Letters A 374(40): 4104–4111, 2010).
  5. Quantum games from Bell’s inequalities: During my Australian Postdoctoral Research Fellowship (APD), and working under Prof Derek Abbott, I developed a new approach to constructing quantum games directly from a system of Bell's inequalities (Phys. Lett. A 374 (31–32), 3155-3163 (2010).
  6. Quantum games on networks: In collaboration with Dr Qiang Li, Chongqing University, China, I presented investigations on quantum games played on networks (Scientific Reports (Nature) 3, 1–7 (2013)).
  7. Bayesian quantum games: Bayesian games have more complex underlying probabilities structure and offer a richer environment in studying the role of quantum probabilities in quantum games. Jointly with Prof Taksu Cheon, I developed the first investigation on quantum Bayesian games (J. Phys. Soc. Japan 77(2):024801, 2008). Its follow up paper (Q. Inform. Process. 13, 2783-2800 (2014)) appeared later with my colleagues at the University of Adelaide.
  8. Concept combinations using quantum games: In joint work with Prof Peter Bruza, Queensland University of Technology, I contributed to the first investigation of using quantum games in the understanding and description of concept combinations in human cognition (AAAI-Fall 2010 Symp. Quant. Inform. Processes, Washington DC, November 11–13, 2010).

Some open questions in quantum game theory are:

  • To what extent are game-theoretic quantum strategies a faithful extension of classical strategies?
  • Under which situations do quantum strategies include solutions to their classical counterparts?
  • Can we find new ways of quantizing the classical games and develop existing quantization schemes?
  • Quantization of static and dynamic games with finite, countable, and uncountable strategy sets.
  • Can quantum games improve the understanding of quantum probabilities, and if so, how?
  • Application of quantum games to quantum information/computation.

I have also done work in classical game theory, geometric algebra, and the mathematical modelling of the memristive devices, as described below.

Game theory: In a recent paper (A. Iqbal, V. Masson, and D. Abbott, Kidnapping model: an extension of Selten's game, Royal Society Open Science, Vol. 4, Art. No. 171484 (2017)), I have developed an extension of the well-known Selten's game model of ransom kidnapping.

Geometric algebra: Geometric Algebra (GA) combines the algebraic structure of Clifford’s algebra with the explicit geometric meaning of its mathematical elements at its foundation. It is a coherent mathematical language that augments the powerful geometric intuition of the human mind with the precision of an algebraic system. In a number of joint works with Dr James M. Chappell and Prof Derek Abbott and others, l contributed to the first studies of quantum games using GA. This includes the following:

  1. Study of Meyer’s quantum penny-flip game using GA (J. Phys. Soc. Japan 78: 54801, 2009) building upon Meyer’s pioneering work in the area of quantum game theory;
  2. Developing the GA-based analysis of the two-player (PLOSONE 7(1): 29015, 2012) and the three-player quantum games in an EPR type setup (PLOSONE 6(7): 1–11, 2011);
  3. Study of special relativity using the mathematical formalism of GA (PLOSONE 7(12): 1–10, 2012);
  4. Investigation of N-player quantum games in an EPR setting (PLOSONE 7(5), 1–9, 2012);
  5. Development of an improved formalism for quantum computation based on GA and applying it to Grover's search algorithm (Q. Inform. Process. 12(4):1719–1735, 2013);
  6. Exploration of the benefits of GA formalism for engineers (Proc. IEEE. 102(9): 1340–1363, 2014);
  7. Study of the functions of multivector variables in GA (PLOSONE 10(3): 0116943, 2015); and
  8. Study of time as a geometric property of the GA-based conception of space (Front. Phys. 4: 44, 2016).

Mathematical modelling of memristive devices: Memristor a portmanteau of “memory” and “resistor” and is a type of passive circuit elements that maintain a relationship between the time integrals of current and voltage across a two-terminal element. In collaboration with my colleagues at the University of Adelaide, I developed mathematical modelling of memristive devices (Proc. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. A-Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 466(2120):2175–2202, 2010) and (Proc. Int. Conf. Comm., Circuits and Systems, ICCCAS, pp. 921-927, 2009) and its applications to circuits and systems simulation (Proc. IEEE 100(6): 1991–2007, 2012).

Appointments

Date Position Institution name
2013 - 2019 Adjunct Senior Lecturer University of Adelaide
2013 - 2014 Assistant Professor King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals
2012 - 2012 Senior Research Associate University of Adelaide
2007 - 2011 Australian Research Council (ARC) Postdoctoral Research Fellow University of Adelaide
2006 - 2007 Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) Postdoctoral Research Fellow and Visiting Associate Professor Kochi University of Technology
2006 - 2006 Assistant Professor National University of Sciences and Technology
1995 - 2002 Scientific Officer Pakistan Institute of Lasers and Optics

Language Competencies

Language Competency
English Can read, write, speak, understand spoken and peer review
Panjabi; Punjabi Can read, write, speak, understand spoken and peer review
Urdu Can read, write, speak, understand spoken and peer review

Education

Date Institution name Country Title
2002 - 2006 University of Sheffield United Kingdom BSc (Honours)
1992 - 1995 University of Hull United Kingdom PhD

Postgraduate Training

Date Title Institution Country
Postgraduate Certificate in Research Training University of Hull United Kingdom

Research Interests

Journals

Year Citation
2017 Iqbal, A., Masson, V., & Abbott, D. (2017). Kidnapping model: an extension of Selten's game. Royal Society Open Science, 4(12), 10 pages.
DOI
2016 Zhou, S., Valchev, D., Dinovitser, A., Chappell, J., Iqbal, A., Ng, B. -H., . . . Abbott, D. (2016). Terahertz signal classification based on geometric algebra. IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science & Technology, 6(6), 793-802.
DOI Scopus1 WoS1
2016 Chappell, J., Hartnett, J., Iannella, N., Iqbal, A., & Abbott, D. (2016). Time as a geometric property of space. Frontiers in Physics, 4, 44-1-44-6.
DOI
2016 Iqbal, A., Chappell, J., & Abbott, D. (2016). On the equivalence between non-factorizable mixed-strategy classical games and quantum games. Royal Society Open Science, 3(1), 1-11.
DOI Scopus4 WoS3 Europe PMC2
2016 Chappell, J., Iqbal, A., Hartnett, J., & Abbott, D. (2016). The vector algebra war: a historical perspective. IEEE Access, 4, 1997-2004.
DOI WoS1
2015 Chappell, J., Iqbal, A., Gunn, L., & Abbott, D. (2015). Functions of multivector variables. PLoS One, 10(3), e0116943-1-e0116943-21.
DOI Scopus1 WoS1
2015 Iqbal, A., Chappell, J., & Abbott, D. (2015). Social optimality in quantum Bayesian games. Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, 436, 798-805.
DOI Scopus14 WoS11
2014 Chappell, J. M., Drake, S. P., Seidel, C. L., Gunn, L. J., Iqbal, A., Allison, A., & Abbott, D. (2014). Geometric algebra for electrical and electronic engineers. Proceedings of the IEEE, 102(9), 1340-1363.
DOI Scopus13 WoS14
2014 Iqbal, A., Chappell, J. M., Li, Q., Pearce, C. E. M., & Abbott, D. (2014). A probabilistic approach to quantum Bayesian games of incomplete information. Quantum Information Processing, 13(2), 2783-2800.
DOI Scopus12 WoS12
2013 Li, Q., Chen, M., Perc, M., Iqbal, A., & Abbott, D. (2013). Effects of adaptive degrees of trust on coevolution of quantum strategies on scale-free networks. Scientific Reports, 3, 1-7.
DOI Scopus22 WoS18 Europe PMC7
2013 Li, Q., Iqbal, A., Perc, M., Chen, M., & Abbott, D. (2013). Coevolution of quantum and classical strategies on evolving random networks. PLoS One, 8(7), 1-10.
DOI Scopus18 WoS15 Europe PMC6
2013 Chappell, J., Iqbal, A., Lohe, M., Von Smekal, L., & Abbott, D. (2013). An improved formalism for quantum computation based on geometric algebra - case study: Grover's search algorithm. Quantum Information Processing, 12(4), 1719-1735.
DOI Scopus3 WoS3
2012 Eshraghian, K., Kavehei, O., Cho, K. R., Chappell, J., Iqbal, A., Al-Sarawi, S., & Abbott, D. (2012). Memristive device fundamentals and modeling: applications to circuits and systems simulation. Proceedings of the IEEE, 100(6), 1991-2007.
DOI Scopus55 WoS49
2012 Chappell, J., Iqbal, A., & Abbott, D. (2012). N-player quantum games in an EPR setting. PLoS One, 7(5), 1-9.
DOI Scopus16 WoS12 Europe PMC3
2012 Li, Q., Iqbal, A., Chen, M., & Abbott, D. (2012). Quantum strategies win in a defector-dominated population. Physica A, 391(11), 3316-3322.
DOI Scopus23 WoS23
2012 Chappell, J., Iqbal, A., & Abbott, D. (2012). Analysis of two-player quantum games in an EPR setting using Clifford's geometric algebra. PLoS One, 7(1), e29015-1-e29015-8.
DOI Scopus10 WoS9 Europe PMC4
2012 Chappell, J., Chappell, M., Iqbal, A., & Abbott, D. (2012). The gravity field of a cube. Physics International, 3(2), 50-57.
DOI
2012 Chappell, J., Iqbal, A., Iannella, N., & Abbott, D. (2012). Revisiting special relativity: a natural algebraic alternative to Minkowski spacetime. PLoS One, 7(12), 1-10.
DOI Scopus4 WoS5
2012 Li, Q., Iqbal, A., Chen, M., & Abbott, D. (2012). Evolution of quantum strategies on a small-world network. European Physical Journal B, 85(11), 1-9.
DOI Scopus3 WoS4
2012 Li, Q., Iqbal, A., Chen, M., & Abbott, D. (2012). Evolution of quantum and classical strategies on networks by group interactions. New Journal of Physics, 14(10), 1-13.
DOI Scopus14 WoS12
2011 Chappell, J., Iqbal, A., & Abbott, D. (2011). Analyzing three-player quantum games in an EPR type setup. PLoS One, 6(7), 1-11.
DOI Scopus15 WoS15 Europe PMC8
2011 Chappell, J., Lohe, M., Von Smekal, L., Iqbal, A., & Abbott, D. (2011). A precise error bound for quantum phase estimation. PLoS One, 6(5), e19663-1-e19663-4.
DOI
2010 Chappell, J., Iqbal, A., & Abbott, D. (2010). Constructing quantum games from symmetric non-factorizable joint probabilities. Physics Letters A, 374(40), 4104-4111.
DOI Scopus7 WoS8
2010 Kavehei, O., Iqbal, A., Kim, Y., Eshraghian, K., Al-Sarawi, S., & Abbott, D. (2010). The fourth element: characteristics, modelling and electromagnetic theory of the memristor. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series A-Mathematical Physical and Engineering Sciences, 466(2120), 2175-2202.
DOI Scopus102 WoS80
2010 Iqbal, A., & Abbott, D. (2010). Constructing quantum games from a system of Bell's inequalities. Physics Letters A, 374(31-32), 3155-3163.
DOI Scopus12 WoS12
2009 Iqbal, A., & Abbott, D. (2009). Non-factorizable joint probabilities and evolutionarily stable strategies in the quantum prisoner's dilemma game. Physics Letters A, 373(30), 2537-2541.
DOI Scopus8 WoS5
2009 Chappell, J., Iqbal, A., Lohe, M., & Von Smekal, L. (2009). An analysis of the quantum penny flip game using geometric algebra. Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 78(54801), 1-4.
DOI Scopus16 WoS15
2008 Iqbal, A., & Abbott, D. (2008). Quantum matching pennies game. Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 78(1), 014803-1-014803-8.
DOI Scopus18 WoS15
2008 Iqbal, A., Cheon, T., & Abbott, D. (2008). Probabilistic analysis of three-player symmetric quantum games played using the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm setting. Physics Letters A, 372(44), 6564-6577.
DOI Scopus26 WoS25
2008 Cheon, T., & Iqbal, A. (2008). Bayesian Nash equilibria and Bell inequalities. Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 77(2), 024801 (6 pages).
DOI Scopus30 WoS31
2007 Iqbal, A., & Cheon, T. (2007). Constructing quantum games from nonfactorizable joint probabilities. Physical Review E. (Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics), 76(6), 061122-1-061122-12.
DOI Scopus23 WoS19
2005 Iqbal, A. (2005). Playing games with EPR-type experiments. Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical (Print Edition), 38(43), 9551-9564.
DOI Scopus13 WoS12
2004 Iqbal, A., & Toor, A. (2004). Stability of mixed Nash equilibria in symmetric quantum game. Communications in Theoretical Physics, 42(3), 335-338.
DOI Scopus9 WoS5
2004 Iqbal, A., & Weigert, S. (2004). Quantum correlation games. Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical (Print Edition), 37(22), 5873-5885.
DOI Scopus27 WoS24
2004 Iqbal, A. (2004). Quantum correlations and Nash equilibria of a bi-matrix game. Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical (Print Edition), 37(29), L353-L359.
DOI Scopus8 WoS5
2003 Iqbal, A. (2003). Quantum games with a multi-slit electron diffraction set-up. Societa Italiana di Fisica Nuovo Cimento B: General Physics, Relativity Astronomy and Mathematical Physics and Methods, 118(5), 463-468.
DOI Scopus1
2002 Iqbal, A., & Toor, A. (2002). Quantum mechanics gives stability to a Nash equilibrium. Physical Review A, 65(2), 022306-1-022306-5.
DOI Scopus47 WoS43
2002 Iqbal, A., & Toor, A. (2002). Quantum cooperative games. Physics Letters A, 293(3-4), 103-108.
DOI Scopus37 WoS36
2002 Iqbal, A., & Toor, A. (2002). Quantum repeated games. Physics Letters A, 300(6), 541-546.
DOI Scopus15 WoS11
2002 Iqbal, A., & Toor, A. (2002). Darwinism in quantum systems?. Physics Letters A, 294(5-6), 261-270.
DOI Scopus15 WoS14
2002 Iqbal, A., & Toor, A. (2002). Backwards-induction outcome in a quantum game. Physical Review A, 65(5), 052328-1-052328-8.
DOI Scopus46 WoS49
2001 Iqbal, A., & Toor, A. (2001). Evolutionarily stable strategies in quantum games. Physics Letters A, 280(5-6), 249-256.
DOI Scopus84 WoS77
2001 Iqbal, A., & Toor, A. (2001). Entanglement and dynamic stability of Nash equilibria in a symmetric quantum game. Physics Letters A, 286(4), 245-250.
DOI Scopus22 WoS18

Book Chapters

Conference Papers

Working Paper

Year Citation
2015 Iqbal, A., Chappell, J. M., & Abbott, D. E. R. E. K. (2015). The equivalence of Bell's inequality and the Nash inequality in a quantum game-theoretic setting.

Internet Publications

Year Citation
2016 Iqbal, A. (2016). Looking at World Events Through the Prism of Game Theory. SAGE International Australia.
  • Faculty of Engineering, Computer & Mathematical Sciences (ECMS) Interdisciplinary Research Grant Scheme 2016 (jointly with Prof Derek Abbott & Dr Virginie Masson) at the University of Adelaide, AU$ 30,000 (2016-2017)
  • Discovery Research Grant DP0771453 and Fellowship (Principal Investigator) from Australian Research Council (ARC) at University of Adelaide, AU$ 247,092 (2007-2011)
  • Research Grant P06330 and Fellowship (Principal Investigator) from Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) at Kochi University of Technology, Japanese Yen 4,958,500 (2006-2007)
  • Fully funded PhD Research Scholarship from the University of Hull, UK, for overseas research students (2002-2005)
  • Fully funded Merit Scholarship from the Government of Pakistan for studying overseas at the University of Sheffield, UK (1992-1995)

School of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, University of Adelaide:

  • Electronic Circuits (Level 2), first semesters 2016 & 2017: tutor
  • Electronic Systems (Level1), first semester 2016: tutor
  • Avionics Sensors & Systems (Level 4), second semester 2014: part-time lecturer
  • Communications (Level 4), first semesters 2012 & 2011: guest lecturer

Math Learning Centre, University of Adelaide:

  • Undergrad Mathematics, 2017: tutor

Department of Mathematics & Statistics, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Saudi Arabia:

  • Methods of Applied Mathematics (Level 3), Jan 2013-May 2014: lecturer
  • Elements of Differential Equations (Level 2), Jan 2013-May 2014: lecturer

National University of Sciences & Technology, Pakistan:

  • Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics (Level 4), July-Nov 2006: lecturer

Committee Memberships

Date Role Committee Institution Country
2013 - 2014 Member Research Committee Department of Mathematics & Statistics, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals Saudi Arabia

Memberships

Date Role Membership Country
2017 - ongoing Member Game Theory Society United States
2017 - ongoing Member Australian Mathematical Society Australia
2016 - ongoing Member JSPS Alumni Association of Australia Australia
2011 - ongoing Member Australian Institute of Physics Australia
2006 - ongoing Member COSNet-Complex Open Systems Research Network Australia
2006 - ongoing Member Australian Nanotechnology Network Australia

Consulting/Advisories

Date Institution Department Organisation Type Country
2017 - ongoing University of Wollongong Exam Office/Student Services Division Australia
2017 - ongoing National Science Centre (Narodowe Centrum Nauki - NCN) Scientific research Poland
2015 - ongoing University of Sydney Faculty of Engineering & IT Australia
Position
Adjunct Senior Lecturer
Phone
83135589
Campus
North Terrace
Building
Ingkarni Wardli Building, floor 3
Room Number
3 49
Org Unit
School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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