Dr Azhar Iqbal

Azhar Iqbal
Adjunct Senior Lecturer
School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Faculty of Engineering, Computer and Mathematical Sciences

I graduated with a BSc (Hons) in Physics from the University of Sheffield, UK, in 1995 and worked for several years in the area of Photonics at the Pakistan Institute of Lasers and Optics, before receiving a PhD in Applied Mathematics from the University of Hull, UK, in 2006. In 2006 I was with the National University of Sciences & Technology (NUST), Pakistan. During 2006-2007 I was with the Kochi University of Technology, Japan, on a postdoctoral research fellowship from Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. During 2007-2011 I was with the University of Adelaide on a postdoctoral research fellowship from the Australian Research Council and in 2012 as a senior research associate. From early 2013 I was with the King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Saudi Arabia, as an academic and returned to the University of Adelaide in mid-2014. My Erdos Number is 4.

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External Profiles

Dr Azhar Iqbal

I graduated with a BSc (Hons) in Physics from the University of Sheffield, UK, in 1995 and worked for several years in the area of Photonics at the Pakistan Institute of Lasers and Optics, before receiving a PhD in Applied Mathematics from the University of Hull, UK, in 2006. In 2006 I was with the National University of Sciences & Technology (NUST), Pakistan. During 2006-2007 I was with the Kochi University of Technology, Japan, on a postdoctoral research fellowship from Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. During 2007-2011 I was with the University of Adelaide on a postdoctoral research fellowship from the Australian Research Council and in 2012 as a senior research associate. From early 2013 I was with the King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Saudi Arabia, as an academic and returned to the University of Adelaide in mid-2014. My Erdos Number is 4.

Introduction and focus: My core research expertise is in quantum game theory that extends the established branch of mathematics called game theory towards the quantum domain. This research area came into existence in 1999 within the field of quantum information/computation when the game theory was added to the set of available mathematical tools in support of the efforts to discover new quantum algorithms [1,2]. Quantum game theory analyses the strategic interaction among rational agents (players) who share the two quantum information resources: (i) quantum superposition and (ii) entanglement. A quantum game involves unitary transformations and players' utilities are obtained from the quantum measurement(s).

Nash equilibrium (NE) is an established solution concept in game theory. My earliest work in quantum game theory was the study [3,34] of a well-known refinement notion of NE called an Evolutionarily Stable Strategy (ESS) [4] within the setting of playing a quantum game. The ESS concept was originally introduced in the 1970s by mathematical biologists who modeled an evolving population, placed under evolutionary pressures, using game-theoretic techniques. The ESS concept emerged as the central solution concept of evolutionary game theory. My work determined how an ESS becomes susceptible when the interactions among the players of a population, which is under evolutionary pressures, become quantum-mechanical. Quantizing a game was found to have consequences not only for the solution concept of an NE but also for one of its well-known refinement(s) [5,6,7,8,9] from evolutionary game theory.

My other works in quantum game theory include investigations on:

  • the fate of the game-theoretic solution concepts of “social optimality” [10], “value of coalition” [11], “backward-induction outcome” [12], and “sub-game perfect outcome” [13] when a game is quantized
  • playing quantum games using an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) setting [14,15,16,26]
  • constructing quantum games from non-factorizable joint probabilities and from a system of Bell’s inequalities [17,18,19]
  • quantum games played on networks [20,21,22,23,24,25]
  • quantum games using the mathematical formalism of Clifford's geometric algebra [27,28,29,30]
  • quantum Bayesian games [31,32,33]

Some research questions in quantum games are:

  • Determining to what extent quantum games are faithful extensions of classical games? When can the outcomes of quantum games be the solutions to classical strategic problems?
  • Seeking new ways of quantizing the classical games and developing the existing quantization schemes
  • Quantization of static and dynamic games with finite, countable, and uncountable strategy sets
  • Obtaining new insights into the paradoxes of classical game theory with the aid of quantum games
  • The physical implementation of quantum games: How quantum games could be really played?
  • Applications of quantum games in quantum information/computation
  • Can quantum games provide more insight into quantum probabilities?

Other Reseach Interests:

Games of asymmetric information: My recent work [to appear] is on (classical) games involving information that is asymmetrically distributed among the players. These games become relevant to several situations encountered during bargaining and negotiations.

Geometric Algebra (GA): The formalism of GA combines the algebraic structure of Clifford’s algebra with the explicit geometric meaning of its mathematical elements at its foundation. It is a coherent mathematical language that provides the powerful geometric intuition with the precision of an algebraic system. In a number of joint works, l have contributed to the studies on the applications of GA in quantum games [35,36,37,38], special relativity [39], quantum information [40], and electrical and electronic engineering [41,42].

Electromagnetics: At the School of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, I have contributed to works [43,44] on the mathematical modelling of memristors. Memristor is s portmanteau of “memory” and “resistor” and is a type of passive circuit elements that maintain a relationship between the time integrals of current and voltage across a two terminal element.

 

 

Appointments

Date Position Institution name
2013 - 2019 Adjunct Senior Lecturer University of Adelaide
2013 - 2014 Assistant Professor King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals
2012 - 2012 Senior Research Associate University of Adelaide
2007 - 2011 Australian Research Council (ARC) Postdoctoral Research Fellow University of Adelaide
2006 - 2007 Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) Postdoctoral Research Fellow and Visiting Associate Professor Kochi University of Technology
2006 - 2006 Assistant Professor National University of Sciences and Technology
1995 - 2002 Scientific Officer Pakistan Institute of Lasers and Optics

Language Competencies

Language Competency
English Can read, write, speak, understand spoken and peer review
Panjabi; Punjabi Can read, write, speak, understand spoken and peer review
Urdu Can read, write, speak, understand spoken and peer review

Education

Date Institution name Country Title
2002 - 2006 University of Sheffield United Kingdom BSc (Honours)
1992 - 1995 University of Hull United Kingdom PhD

Postgraduate Training

Date Title Institution Country
Postgraduate Certificate in Research Training University of Hull United Kingdom

Research Interests

Applied Mathematics, Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Mathematical Aspects of Quantum, Mathematical Physics, Optoelectronics & Photonics, Quantum Information, Computation and Communication, Quantum Physics

Journals

Year Citation
2016 Zhou, S., Valchev, D., Dinovitser, A., Chappell, J., Iqbal, A., Ng, B. -. H. ... Abbott, D. (2016). Terahertz signal classification based on geometric algebra. IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science & Technology, 6, 6, 793-802.
10.1109/TTHZ.2016.2610759
2016 Chappell, J., Hartnett, J., Iannella, N., Iqbal, A. & Abbott, D. (2016). Time as a geometric property of space. D. Baleanu (Ed.). Frontiers in Physics, 4, 44-1-44-6.
10.3389/fphy.2016.00044
2016 Iqbal, A., Chappell, J. & Abbott, D. (2016). On the equivalence between non-factorizable mixed-strategy classical games and quantum games. Royal Society Open Science, 3, 1, 1-11.
10.1098/rsos.150477
2016 Chappell, J., Iqbal, A., Hartnett, J. & Abbott, D. (2016). The vector algebra war: a historical perspective. IEEE Access, 4, 1997-2004.
10.1109/ACCESS.2016.2538262
2015 Iqbal, A., Chappell, J. & Abbott, D. (2015). Social optimality in quantum Bayesian games. Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, 436, 798-805.
10.1016/j.physa.2015.05.020
2015 Chappell, J., Iqbal, A., Gunn, L. & Abbott, D. (2015). Functions of multivector variables. PLoS One, 10, 3, e0116943-1-e0116943-21.
10.1371/journal.pone.0116943
2014 Chappell, J. M., Drake, S. P., Seidel, C. L., Gunn, L. J., Iqbal, A., Allison, A. & Abbott, D. (2014). Geometric algebra for electrical and electronic engineers. Proceedings of the IEEE, 102, 9, 1340-1363.
10.1109/JPROC.2014.2339299
2014 Iqbal, A., Chappell, J. M., Li, Q., Pearce, C. E. M. & Abbott, D. (2014). A probabilistic approach to quantum Bayesian games of incomplete information. Quantum Information Processing, 13, 2783-2800.
2013 Li, Q., Iqbal, A., Perc, M., Chen, M. & Abbott, D. (2013). Coevolution of quantum and classical strategies on evolving random networks. A. Barrat (Ed.). PLoS One, 8, 7, 1-10.
10.1371/journal.pone.0068423
2013 Chappell, J., Iqbal, A., Lohe, M., Von Smekal, L. & Abbott, D. (2013). An improved formalism for quantum computation based on geometric algebra - case study: Grover's search algorithm. Quantum Information Processing, 12, 4, 1719-1735.
10.1007/s11128-012-0483-7
2013 Li, Q., Chen, M., Perc, M., Iqbal, A. & Abbott, D. (2013). Effects of adaptive degrees of trust on coevolution of quantum strategies on scale-free networks. Scientific Reports, 3, 1-7.
10.1038/srep02949
2012 Li, Q., Iqbal, A., Chen, M. & Abbott, D. (2012). Evolution of quantum strategies on a small-world network. European Physical Journal B, 85, 11, 1-9.
10.1140/epjb/e2012-30398-1
2012 Eshraghian, K., Kavehei, O., Cho, K. R., Chappell, J., Iqbal, A., Al-Sarawi, S. & Abbott, D. (2012). Memristive device fundamentals and modeling: applications to circuits and systems simulation. Proceedings of the IEEE, 100, 6, 1991-2007.
10.1109/JPROC.2012.2188770
2012 Chappell, J., Iqbal, A. & Abbott, D. (2012). N-player quantum games in an EPR setting. M. Perc (Ed.). PLoS One, 7, 5, 1-9.
10.1371/journal.pone.0036404
2012 Li, Q., Iqbal, A., Chen, M. & Abbott, D. (2012). Evolution of quantum and classical strategies on networks by group interactions. New Journal of Physics, 14, 10, 1-13.
10.1088/1367-2630/14/10/103034
2012 Chappell, J., Iqbal, A., Iannella, N. & Abbott, D. (2012). Revisiting special relativity: a natural algebraic alternative to Minkowski spacetime. E. Scalas (Ed.). PLoS One, 7, 12, 1-10.
10.1371/journal.pone.0051756
2012 Li, Q., Iqbal, A., Chen, M. & Abbott, D. (2012). Quantum strategies win in a defector-dominated population. Physica A, 391, 11, 3316-3322.
10.1016/j.physa.2012.01.048
2012 Chappell, J., Chappell, M., Iqbal, A. & Abbott, D. (2012). The gravity field of a cube. Physics International, 3, 2, 50-57.
10.3844/pisp.2012.50.57
2012 Chappell, J., Iqbal, A. & Abbott, D. (2012). Analysis of two-player quantum games in an EPR setting using Clifford's geometric algebra. G. Adesso (Ed.). PLoS One, 7, 1, e29015-1-e29015-8.
10.1371/journal.pone.0029015
2011 Chappell, J., Lohe, M., Von Smekal, L., Iqbal, A. & Abbott, D. (2011). A precise error bound for quantum phase estimation. J. Kurths (Ed.). PLoS One, 6, 5, e19663-1-e19663-4.
10.1371/journal.pone.0019663
2011 Chappell, J., Iqbal, A. & Abbott, D. (2011). Analyzing three-player quantum games in an EPR type setup. A. Szolnoki (Ed.). PLoS One, 6, 7, 1-11.
10.1371/journal.pone.0021623
2010 Iqbal, A. & Abbott, D. (2010). Constructing quantum games from a system of Bell's inequalities. Physics Letters A, 374, 31-32, 3155-3163.
10.1016/j.physleta.2010.05.062
2010 Kavehei, O., Iqbal, A., Kim, Y., Eshraghian, K., Al-Sarawi, S. & Abbott, D. (2010). The fourth element: characteristics, modelling and electromagnetic theory of the memristor. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series A-Mathematical Physical and Engineering Sciences, 466, 2120, 2175-2202.
10.1098/rspa.2009.0553
2010 Chappell, J., Iqbal, A. & Abbott, D. (2010). Constructing quantum games from symmetric non-factorizable joint probabilities. Physics Letters A, 374, 40, 4104-4111.
10.1016/j.physleta.2010.08.024
2009 Iqbal, A. & Abbott, D. (2009). Non-factorizable joint probabilities and evolutionarily stable strategies in the quantum prisoner's dilemma game. Physics Letters A, 373, 30, 2537-2541.
10.1016/j.physleta.2009.05.020
2009 Chappell, J., Iqbal, A., Lohe, M. & Von Smekal, L. (2009). An analysis of the quantum penny flip game using geometric algebra. Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 78, 54801, 1-4.
10.1143/JPSJ.78.054801
2008 Cheon, T. & Iqbal, A. (2008). Bayesian Nash equilibria and Bell inequalities. Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 77, 2, 024801-.
10.1143/JPSJ.77.024801
2008 Iqbal, A., Cheon, T. & Abbott, D. (2008). Probabilistic analysis of three-player symmetric quantum games played using the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm setting. Physics Letters A, 372, 44, 6564-6577.
10.1016/j.physleta.2008.09.026
2008 Iqbal, A. & Abbott, D. (2008). Quantum matching pennies game. Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 78, 1, 014803-1-014803-8.
10.1143/JPSJ.78.014803
2007 Iqbal, A. & Cheon, T. (2007). Constructing quantum games from nonfactorizable joint probabilities. Physical Review E. (Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics), 76, 6, 061122-1-061122-12.
10.1103/PhysRevE.76.061122
2005 Iqbal, A. (2005). Playing games with EPR-type experiments. Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical (Print Edition), 38, 43, 9551-9564.
10.1088/0305-4470/38/43/009
2004 Iqbal, A. (2004). Quantum correlations and Nash equilibria of a bi-matrix game. Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical (Print Edition), 37, 29, L353-L359.
10.1088/0305-4470/37/29/L04
2004 Iqbal, A. & Weigert, S. (2004). Quantum correlation games. Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical (Print Edition), 37, 22, 5873-5885.
10.1088/0305-4470/37/22/012
2004 Iqbal, A. & Toor, A. (2004). Stability of mixed Nash equilibria in symmetric quantum game. Communications in Theoretical Physics, 42, 3, 335-338.
10.1088/0253-6102/42/3/335
2003 Iqbal, A. (2003). Quantum games with a multi-slit electron diffraction set-up. Societa Italiana di Fisica Nuovo Cimento B: General Physics, Relativity Astronomy and Mathematical Physics and Methods, 118, 5, 463-468.
10.1393/ncb/i2002-10005-2
2002 Iqbal, A. & Toor, A. (2002). Backwards-induction outcome in a quantum game. Physical Review A, 65, 5, 052328-1-052328-8.
10.1103/PhysRevA.65.052328
2002 Iqbal, A. & Toor, A. (2002). Quantum repeated games. Physics Letters A, 300, 6, 541-546.
10.1016/S0375-9601(02)00893-9
2002 Iqbal, A. & Toor, A. (2002). Darwinism in quantum systems?. Physics Letters A, 294, 5-6, 261-270.
10.1016/S0375-9601(02)00067-1
2002 Iqbal, A. & Toor, A. (2002). Quantum cooperative games. Physics Letters A, 293, 3-4, 103-108.
10.1016/S0375-9601(02)00003-8
2002 Iqbal, A. & Toor, A. (2002). Quantum mechanics gives stability to a Nash equilibrium. Physical Review A, 65, 2, 022306-1-022306-5.
10.1103/PhysRevA.65.022306
2001 Iqbal, A. & Toor, A. (2001). Evolutionarily stable strategies in quantum games. Physics Letters A, 280, 5-6, 249-256.
10.1016/S0375-9601(01)00082-2
2001 Iqbal, A. & Toor, A. (2001). Entanglement and dynamic stability of Nash equilibria in a symmetric quantum game. Physics Letters A, 286, 4, 245-250.
10.1016/S0375-9601(01)00428-5

Book Chapters

Year Citation
2008 Iqbal, A. & Cheon, T. (2008). Evolutionary stability in quantum games. In D. Abbott, P. C. W. Davies & A. K. Pati (Eds.), Quantum Aspects of Life (pp. 251-288). London: Imperial College Press.
10.1142/9781848162556_0013

Conference Papers

Year Citation
2016 Zhou, S., Valchev, D., Dinovitser, A., Chappell, J., Iqbal, A., Ng, B. ... Abbot, D. (2016). Dispersion-independent terahertz classification based on Geometric Algebra for substance detection. 41st International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz). Copenhagen, DENMARK.
10.1109/IRMMW-THz.2016.7758626
2010 Bruza, P., Iqbal, A. & Kitto, K. (2010). The role of non-factorizability in determining ''Pseudo-classical' non-separability. Quantum Informatics. Virginia.
2009 Kavehei, O., Kim, Y. S., Iqbal, A., Eshraghian, K., Al-Sarawi, S. & Abbott, D. (2009). The fourth element: Insights into the Memristor. ICCCAS. California.
10.1109/ICCCAS.2009.5250370
2008 Iqbal, A. & Cheon, T. (2008). Constructing multi-player quantum games from non-factorizable joint probabilities - art. no. 68020A. Conference on Complex Systems II. D. Abbott, T. Aste, M. Batchelor, R. Dewar, T. DiMatteo & T. Guttmann (Eds.) Canberra, AUSTRALIA.
2007 Iqbal, A. & Cheon, T. (2007). Constructing multi-player quantum games from non-factorizable joint probabilities. SPIE Microelectronics, MEMS, and Nanotechnology. Canberra.
10.1117/12.774374

Working Paper

Year Citation
2017 Iqbal, A., Masson, V. & Abbott, D.; (2017); Kidnapping Model: An Extension of Selten's Game;
2015 Iqbal, A., Chappell, J. M. & Abbott, D. E. R. E. K.; (2015); The equivalence of Bell's inequality and the Nash inequality in a quantum game-theoretic setting;

Internet Publications

Year Citation
2016 Iqbal, A.; (2016); Looking at World Events Through the Prism of Game Theory;
  • Faculty of Engineering, Computer & Mathematical Sciences (ECMS) Interdisciplinary Research Grant Scheme 2016 (jointly with Prof Derek Abbott & Dr Virginie Masson) at the University of Adelaide, AU$ 30,000 (2016-2017)
  • Discovery Research Grant DP0771453 and Fellowship (Principal Investigator) from Australian Research Council (ARC) at University of Adelaide, AU$ 247,092 (2007-2011)
  • Research Grant P06330 and Fellowship (Principal Investigator) from Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) at Kochi University of Technology, Japanese Yen 4,958,500 (2006-2007)
  • Fully funded PhD Research Scholarship from the University of Hull, UK, for overseas research students (2002-2005)
  • Fully funded Merit Scholarship from the Government of Pakistan for studying overseas at the University of Sheffield, UK (1992-1995)

School of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, University of Adelaide:

  • Electronic Circuits (Level 2), first semesters 2016 & 2017: tutor
  • Electronic Systems (Level1), first semester 2016: tutor
  • Avionics Sensors & Systems (Level 4), second semester 2014: part-time lecturer
  • Communications (Level 4), first semesters 2012 & 2011: guest lecturer

Math Learning Centre, University of Adelaide:

  • Undergrad Mathematics, 2017: tutor

Department of Mathematics & Statistics, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Saudi Arabia:

  • Methods of Applied Mathematics (Level 3), Jan 2013-May 2014: lecturer
  • Elements of Differential Equations (Level 2), Jan 2013-May 2014: lecturer

National University of Sciences & Technology, Pakistan:

  • Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics (Level 4), July-Nov 2006: lecturer
  • 2017 and 2016 Masters Projects at the School of Electrical & Electronic Engineering: advisor

Provided assistance in research supervision of:

  • Dr Omid Kavehei (completed his PhD at the School of Electrical & Electronic Engineering in 2012)
  • Dr James M. Chappell (completed his PhD at the School of Chemistry & Physics in 2011)
  • Dr Qiang Li (our research visitor from early 2011 to mid 2012 from the Chongqing University, People Republic of China)

Memberships

Date Role Membership Country
2017 - ongoing Member Game Theory Society United States
2017 - ongoing Member Australian Mathematical Society Australia
2016 - ongoing Member JSPS Alumni Association of Australia Australia
2011 - ongoing Member Australian Institute of Physics Australia
2006 - ongoing Member Australian Nanotechnology Network Australia
2006 - ongoing Member COSNet-Complex Open Systems Research Network Australia

Committee Memberships

Date Role Committee Institution Country
2013 - 2014 Member Research Committee Department of Mathematics & Statistics, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals Saudi Arabia

Consulting/Advisories

Date Institution Department Organisation Type Country
2017 - ongoing University of Wollongong Exam Office/Student Services Division Australia
2017 - ongoing National Science Centre (Narodowe Centrum Nauki - NCN) Scientific research Poland
2015 - ongoing University of Sydney Faculty of Engineering & IT Australia
Position
Adjunct Senior Lecturer
Phone
83135589
Campus
North Terrace
Building
Ingkarni Wardli
Room Number
3 49
Org Unit
School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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